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» (E) 900-year-old Zagreb diocese
By Nenad N. Bach | Published 03/19/2002 | Religion | Unrated

900-year-old Zagreb diocese. We are not building it from the scratch ! 

God save Croatia

"Boze Cuvaj Hrvatsku"

An unidentified Croatian man holds the crucifix while attending the funeral ceremony for late Croatian Cardinal Franjo Kuharic in Zagreb, Thursday, March 14, 2002. Text on crucifix reads God save Croatia.Kuharic, who died Monday of heart failure at age 83, was the archbishop of the 900-year-old Zagreb diocese. (APPhoto/Darko Bandic)


» (E) Contact Your Congressman!
By Nenad N. Bach | Published 03/19/2002 | Politics | Unrated
1329 Connecticut Avenue, N.W. 
Washington, DC 20036 
Phone: (202) 331-2830 Fax: (202)331-0050 
(Washington, D.C., March 18, 2002). The National Federation of Croatian 
Americans calls on all Croatian Americans to urgently contact their Congressmen 
concerning proposed United States assistance to Croatia for Fiscal Year 2003. 
The budget proposal allocates only $30 million to Croatia and $50 million to 
Bosnia and Herzegovina. This compares with proposed allocations of $110 
million for Serbia, $25 million for Montenegro and $85 million for Kosovo. 
Of interest is the comparison with aid proposed to be given to other states that 
were not formerly part of Yugoslavia. Albania and Bulgaria will each get 
$28 million and Romania $29 million under the proposal, a minor difference in 
comparison to the amount proposed for Croatia. 
John Kraljic, President of the NFCA, notes that Croatia has consistently fulfilled its 
international obligations, including those concerning the International War Crimes 
Tribunal in the Hague. "Despite the fact that the indictments brought against a number of 
Croatian military officers contain numerous questionable charges, the Croatian 
government has nevertheless been committed to complying with demands to turn over 
indictees and evidence. This has certainly not been the case with Serbia." 
The Republic of Croatia remains in dire need of additional assistance from the 
United States. "The Republic of Croatia appears to have stabilized is financial and 
monetary system, but the economy still has a long way to go. The Croatian government 
will likely have to cut additional costs to balance its budget at a time 
when more than 400,000 remain unemployed. Croatia continues to suffer from the effects of 
having its territory occupied for four years. Mines remain a problem, houses have not 
been rebuilt, fields remain fallow." 
Mr. Kraljic further noted that the present poor economic problems were 
exacerbated during NATO's 1999 war against Serbia. "Croatia supported the 
United States in its determination to stop Serbian aggression on Kosovo and freely 
allowed its air space to be used by NATO planes to accomplish their mission. This was all 
done at tremendous costs to Croatia's tourist industry, one of Croatia's most 
important. The 1999 tourist season turned into a disaster because of this." 
The need for assistance is clear. Croatia's road to democracy and full integration 
with the West depends completely on its ability to stand on its own two 
feet. Croatia may be headed that way but it's not there yet. "Croatia still needs its 
training wheels," Mr. Kraljic noted. "This proposal suggests to Croatia that the United States no 
longer cares about Croatia. Croatia, however, remains in need of this assistance." 
The NFCA is a national umbrella organization whose members have approximately 
130,000 members. 
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» (E) Mestrovic seeking divine relief from earthly agony
By Nenad N. Bach | Published 03/19/2002 | Media Watch | Unrated 
Nationalism in Split, Croatia 
by Christian Hummel 
Robert Kaplan's praised (and despised) Balkan Ghosts considers the region 
through the eyes of a well-informed traveler. Rather than merely reporting 
what he sees or writing tales of the places he visits, in this book, as in 
his others, Kaplan attempts to map the dynamics at work today and the future 
processes. To account for Croatian nationalism, for example, Kaplan turns to 
the stories of two bishops, demonstrating the links between Croatian 
identity and the Catholic Church. While the two are often deemed synonymous, 
Kaplan only weakly brings the two together. His biggest problem was that he 
went to Zagreb in search of nationalism. He should have gone to Split. 
Split is the second largest city in Croatia, although its population is only 
a quarter of Zagreb's. Located on the Dalmatian coast, the city has always 
drawn its share of visitors. Having divided the Roman Empire, Diocletian 
built a palace and camped out in Split for the remainder of his days. The 
town's history is a veritable "who's who" of Mediterranean conquerors, with 
the Greeks, Romans, Slavs, Venetians, Turks, French, Italians, and Serbs all 
having overrun the place in the last 2000 or so years. 
Split's archaeological museum, like the ruins of the Roman town of Salona 
just outside the city, is a tribute to Franjo Bulic, the dean of Croatian 
archaeology. The museum itself consists of a fairly straightforward display 
of items from across the ages, while, outside, spectacular monuments are 
arranged unobtrusively and so largely unnoticed by visitors. 
Although the archaeological museum and its accompanying ruins are among the 
better of the Adriatic, the best museum in Eastern Europe must surely be the 
Ivan Mestrovic Gallery. And, while ancient ruins are nice, the true story of 
Split is to be found beyond Diocletian and his palace. 
Ivan Mestrovic was a 20th century sculptor, whose works can be viewed in 
such diverse weave's as Chicago's Grant Park, in front of the United Nations 
building in New York, and all throughout Croatia. 
The development of Mestrovic's style is historically illuminating; it 
chronicles the decline of the Austro-Hungarian state and the rise in the 
aspirations for independence of the south Slavic peoples. 
Mestrovic trained in Vienna and his initial works display a strong emphasis 
of classical styles. His subjects are the characters of Greco-Roman 
mythology and generally lack any originality or excitement. Later, though, 
his sculptures develop a unique character. Mestrovic embraced curved shapes, 
conveying alternately a sense of motion or one of stillness and 
contemplation. Consistently though, the sculptures of this period are of 
figures with their heads bowed submissively. This aspect, present in works 
like "Contemplation" or "The History of Croatia," lasted until the outbreak 
of World War II. In the 1940's Mestrovic embraced a fascination with 
religious figures that would persist for the rest of his career. 
Among the many striking works of his later career, "Job," dated 1946, best 
reflects his connecting of religion and Balkan politics. Mestrovic's 
tortured Old Testament figure comments on the war and Croatia's fate in the 
new Yugoslavia. No longer submissive, his figures gaze upward, seeking 
divine relief from earthly agony. 
Mestrovic is clearly an important figure. His career is reminiscent to those 
of other important figures in Croatian history, such as Bishop Strossmayer. 
Strossmayer was educated in Vienna but rejected the control of the 
Austro-Hungarian Empire over the South Slavs. He was disappointed by the 
problems of the first Yugoslavia, created after World War I, as the 
ambitions of the Croats were relegated, in his eyes, to the dominating 
interests of the Serbs. Ultimately, he left Yugoslavia and settled in the 
United States, teaching at Syracuse and Notre Dame. 
Split remains a stronghold of nationalist sentiment. 
Walking towards town center, my friend and I noticed a group of people 
gathered in front of the Franciscan monastery holding large banners. The 
largest sign read "Hungry for Justice," and it was clear that a hunger 
strike was underway. Smaller signs mentioned indicted war criminals and 
Operations Storm and Flash. The strikers themselves were large men, for whom 
a few days without food might prove beneficial. They gathered in the shade 
of the monastery, juice boxes and water bottle's in hand, and lit candles 
around themselves. 
The next day, the striking men all donned identical hats: ballcaps with a 
checkerboard red and white design and HRVATSKA written on the back. The men 
were cheerful and determined. On the final day of my stay, things changed. 
A huge crowd had gathered in front of the men; something was afoot. 
I meandered over to see the Bishop of Split talking to the strikers in front of 
cameras from local media outlets. Later, I learned that he had asked the strikers to 
leave the monastery's premises. He did, however, give them books and a crucifix. 
Voting patterns also indicate a strong nationalist bent in Dalmatia. The 
HDZ's biggest stronghold is Dalmatia. That party controls most county and 
municipal governments in the area. I suspect there are several reasons for 
this pattern, because, historically, Dalmatia was never considered a part of 
Croatia proper until recently. First, the borders of Dalmatia include much more 
than the coast. In the hinterlands above the coast, the small, scattered population is almost 
entirely nationalist. Many served on the front-lines during the war. This 
did not make them sympathetic to weaker politics. 
Second, the influx of refugees into the cities is a factor. Related to the 
point above, Split and the other large cities saw an influx of the 
displaced, not only from within Croatia, but from Herzegovina as well. This 
population movement skewed the political demographics to the right. 
Not that I have any problem with right-wing politics. It's just violent 
nationalists I distrust. 
Mr. Hummel is a graduate of the College and a Fulbright Scholar Studying in Croatia. 
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» (E) Film Review - The Avoidable War
By Nenad N. Bach | Published 03/19/2002 | Letters to the Editors | Unrated
Date: Sun, 17 Mar 2002 00:27:21 -0800 
Subject: Film Review 
Letters to the Editor 
New York Times 
New York, N.Y. 
March 16, 2002 
Dear Editor: 
In the review of Serb producer Bogdanich's film "Yugoslavia, the 
Avoidable War" film critic Stephen Holden errs when stating that "it 
would be inaccurate to label this documentary pro-Serbian". While he 
sees through most of the fallacies parading as facts, the reviewer 
evidently does not have any knowledge of events in WWII Yugoslavia and 
therefore falls easy prey to the film's portrayals of all Croatians as 
Nazi collaborators. Not only were Serbs also Nazi collaborators , but 
most importantly left out is the historic fact that the Nazi resistance 
was formed in Croatia, not Serbia, with Croatians predominating in the 
antifascist war. 
Most outrageously, Serbs, as in this film, still keep bringing up the 
hugely inflated numbers of Serbs and Jews killed in WWII by Nazi 
collaborators. While the loss of one innocent life is one too many, 
research by experts, historians and statisticians back in the 1980's 
Yugoslavia have proven the numbers to be vastly exaggerated. At the same 
time Serbs omit ever mentioning the tens of thousands of Jews and others 
they killed in their own concentration camps in Serbia. It is therefore 
obvious that such a "documentary" is indeed simply a Serb propaganda film 
and should not be seen as anything else. 
Hilda M. Foley 
National Federation of Croatian Americans 
13272 Orange Knoll 
Santa Ana, CA 92705 
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» (E) Letter to Wall Street Journal
By Nenad N. Bach | Published 03/19/2002 | Letters to the Editors | Unrated
Re: "Anti-Terrorism Requires Nation Building," by Matthew Kaminski, Op-Ed, 
March 15, 2002 
To the Editor: 
Matthew Kaminski makes a compelling argument concerning the US military's 
role in stemming Islamic fundamentalism in Bosnia-Herzegovina. However, he 
fails to address what is necessary for the successful conclusion of America's 
mission in that country. 
The primary problem remains an unwieldy administration which provides often 
contradictory rights to the three constituent nations in Bosnia-Herzegovina, 
the Serbs, Croats and Bosniaks. The current government structure 
specifically fails to properly assure equal rights to political and cultural 
development for all three of its peoples. 
The Croats in this regard have been the big losers. The majority of Croats 
in the country have concluded that they have no stake in the country, 
something that is necessary for the stability of Bosnia-Herzegovina. 
As pointed out by a senior Bosnian-Herzegovine diplomat in WSJE on October 
12 (V.M. Raguz, "Now There Another Reason to Seek Peace in the Balkans"), a 
new plan for long term stability is what NATO now needs -- a plan that would 
craft uniform collective rights to the still unhappy groups in the region, 
such as the Croats. 
Mr. Kaminski rightly notes that Bosnia- Herzegovina's unity is a 
prerequisite to stability. However, such unity cannot occur without uniform 
institutions equally protecting and promoting the interests of Croats as 
well as Serbs and Bosniaks. 
Very truly yours, 
John Peter Kraljic 
President, National Federation of Croatian Americans 
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» (D) In memoriam Hans-Georg Gadamer
By Nenad N. Bach | Published 03/19/2002 | In Memoriam | Unrated
Anmerkung. Hans-Georg Gadamer hat den kroatishen Philosphen Mathias Flacius 
Illyricus / Matija Vlacic Ilirik (1520-1575) als einen Klassiker der 
Hermeneutik anerkannt. Im zweiten Band seines Hauptwerks "Wahrheit und 
Methode", behandelt Gadamer Vlacics Hermeneutik sehr umfaenglich. Vlacics 
Begriff "scopus" ist einer der Grundbegriffe der Hermaneutik bei Gadamer (die Lehre 
vom Auslegen und Verstehen). Vlacic war einer der einflussreichsten Denker 
der propestantischen Bewegung, er hat ueber 250 Baende verfasst, und sein 
Hauptwerk ist "Catalogus testium veritas" (1556). Vlacic stammte aus 
Istrien. Gadamer hat auch an den Universitaeten in den Vereinigten Staaten 
Vortraegen / Vorlesungen gehalten. (ra) 
Der letzte deutsche Denker in großer Tradition 
Hans-Georg Gadamer begründete die philosophische Hermeneutik und war in 
seinen letzten Lebensjahrzehnten der "Nestor" der deutschen Gegenwartsphilosophie. 
Hans-Georg Gadamer war nicht nur der älteste, sondern auch imposanteste 
Repräsentant der Geisteswissenschaftler Deutschlands. Der Philosoph starb 
einen Monat nach seinem 102. Geburtstag in Heidelberg. 
Der am 11. Februar 1900 in Marburg geborene Sohn eines Chemieprofessors 
durchlebte das gesamte vergangene Jahrhundert, das er mit seinem 
umfangreichen Werk bereichert und mitgeprägt hat. Bis zu seinem Tod war 
Gadamer ein hellwacher Kopf, dazu ein so kritischer wie souveränder 
Beobachter des Zeitgeschehens. Noch als Greis konnte der Schüler Martin 
Heideggers aus dem Stand und ohne jedes Konzept druckreif in freier Rede 
formulieren. In den letzten Jahren drängten sich geradezu die Nachgeborenen, um ein 
Interview oder einfach nur ein Gespräch mit dem auch äußerlich 
beeindruckenden weißhaarigen Herrn mit besten Manieren zu bekommen. Denn 
allen war klar, dass ein Denker dieser Rangstufe, mit diesem 
enzyklopädischen Wissen und sich wie selbstverständlich in der großen 
Tradition der deutschen Philosophiegeschichte bewegend, keinen Nachfolger 
haben würde. Dabei ist der Ruhm erst spät in das lange Leben des schon 1968 von seinem 
Heidelberger Lehrstuhl abgetretenen Mannes gekommen: 1960 hatte Gadamer mit 
seinem Hauptwerk "Wahrheit und Methode" Weltgeltung erlangt. Fortan galt er 
als Begründer der zeitgenössischen "philosophischen Hermeneutik", der Lehre 
vom Auslegen und Verstehen. Gadamer verstand den Menschen als ein auf Verstehen 
angelegtes Wesen, der die Erfahrung von Geschichte in Sinn umzuwandeln genötigt ist. 
Wer je diesen lebhaften Denker bei einer Vorlesung oder einem Vortrag beobachten konnte, 
sah einen Mann, der das Gespräch und das Wort über alles liebte. 
Dialogfähigkeit als Überlebensfrage der Menschheit 
Für den späten Gadamer war die Dialogverpflichtung des Menschen die 
Überlebensfrage der Menschheit überhaupt: "Die Hermeneutik kann ja besonders 
dies leisten: den Respekt vor dem anderen wieder zu begründen durch die 
Tatsache, dass man niemals für sich alleine alles sagen kann." 
Als der bis zuletzt seine tägliche Weinration genießende Mann diese 
Erkenntnis eines langen Gelehrtendaseins formulierte, war er übrigens 
bereits 99 Jahre alt. "Zeuge des Jahrhunderts zu sein, ist eine große Last", meinte er 
damals im Blick auf jenes 20. Jahrhundert, dessen Irrungen und Wirrungen auch Gadamer 
nicht entkommen konnte. 1939 hatte der Philosoph einen Lehrstuhl in Leipzig erhalten, 
den er bis 1947 behielt. Im Hitler-Reich konzentrierte er sich auf sein Fachgebiet, in 
dem er mit einer von Heidegger abgenommenen Arbeit über die Ethik in der 
griechischen Antike seine Professur begründet hatte. 
Unter dem Motto "Auch das geht vorüber" überstand er die Diktatur ohne 
nachweisbare Verstrickung oder Widerstand. Gadamer sah sich selbst so 
bewusst wie bescheiden als deutschen Professor traditionellen Stils. 
In späten Jahren zum Nestor seiner Disziplin, ja zur geistigen Instanz zu 
werden - das dürfte den persönlich bescheidenen, höchst unspektakulär in 
einem Einfamilienhaus oberhalb von Heidelberg wohnenden Denker selbst 
verwundert haben. Doch er war ja nicht nur ein Philosoph, der kluge Bücher geschrieben 
hatte, sondern ein Meister deutscher Sprache, der nach dem Tod Ernst Jüngers nicht 
mehr seinesgleichen hatte. Die Muttersprache, sagte er, "prägt unsere Identität und ist 
durch nichts zu ersetzen." Auch Hans-Georg Gadamer ist nicht zu ersetzen. 
Seine Werke werden bleiben, aber mehr noch die Erinnerung all derer, die ihn 
persönlich hören und sehen konnten. Mit seinem Tod geht eine ganze Epoche deutscher 
Geistesgeschichte zu Ende. (ap/kas) 
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» (E) Cast Your Vote by Socrates
By Nenad N. Bach | Published 03/19/2002 | Humor And Wisdom | Unrated
Socrates. That seems very strange to me, when I consider the principle which 
you say governs your politics. But there is another class, so very numerous 
and important, that I am sure your legislators must have found a means of 
counting their votes, although there may be some material difficulty in 
doing so : I mean the dead. For who can have a greater stake in a country 
than its founders, whose whole soul and single hope was devoted to 
establishing it, that it might last and be true to their thought for ever ; 
or than the soldiers who in many wars have successively given their lives to 
preserve it ? Surely at every meeting of your assembly their votes are 
counted first, which they once cast so solemnly and sincerely, and at so 
great a sacrifice to themselves for your sake ; and their veto is interposed 
beforehand against any rash measures that might undo their labours, stultify 
their hopes, and banish their spirit from the house which they built and 
The Stranger. No ; the dead have no vote among us. On the contrary, we think 
they have too much influence as it is without voting, because they have 
bequeathed institutions to us which encumber our playground and are not to 
our liking ; and the inertia which these institutions oppose to our fresh 
desires seems to us a hateful force, which we call the dead hand. 
Socrates. Do you mean that every young rascal, who knows nothing of the 
origin and laws of his country, and has never done anything in it but be 
born, may cast a vote, or that foreigners fleeing from famine or seeking by 
trade to enrich themselves privately, although in their hearts they may be 
sworn enemies to the land that receives them, may cast a vote also, but that 
the founders and defenders of it are not suffered to make their voices 
heard, because they happen to be dead ? I, who am dead myself, see a great 
injustice in that... 
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By Nenad N. Bach | Published 03/18/2002 | In Memoriam | Unrated
ZAGREB 18.ozujka 2002. 
U zagrebackoj bolnici Sveti Duh jucer poslijepodne umrla je, nakon kratke i 
teske bolesti, hrvatska povjesnicarka Ljubica Stefan. 
napisala je desetak knjiga, baveci se uglavnom genezom velikosrpske ideje, 
prikupljajuci po beogradskim arhivima i knjiznicama nepoznate dokumente o 
ulozi Srbije u Drugom svjetskom ratu, Srpskoj pravoslavnoj crkvi (SPC), 
srpskom antisemitizmu i nasiljem nad Albancima. 
Takodjer je objavila i niz clanaka i podlistaka u tjedniku za kulturu 
Hrvatsko slovo, u Vjesniku te Hrvatskom obzoru. 
Sinoc je u Zagrebu sastavljen i odbor za pripremu pokopa povjesnicarke 
Ljubice Stefan, a o danu pokopa javnost ce biti naknadno obavjestena. (H) 
Prof. Ljubica Stefan (r. 1921.g. u Prilepu) 
Dom umirovljenika 
Klaiceva ul. 10 / soba 137 ; 10000Zagreb 
otac u I. svij. ratu kao pricuvni austrijski casnik zarobljen i preko 
Albanije odveden u logor u Italiju, odbio biti dobrovoljac srpske vojske 
zato nakon povratka u Karlovacu nije mogao dobiti posao kao profesor na 
Gimnaziji, pa po dekretu tadasnjeg Ministarstva prosvjete rasporedjen u 
Prilep, kasnije se vraca u Karlovac, a zatim ponovno seli u Beograd 
Ljubica rodjena 1921.g. u Prilepu od roditelja Hrvata iz Karlovca, majka joj rano umire 
za vrijeme II. svij. rata boravi u Karlovcu kod strica, koji pomaze i zbrinjava zidovske obitelji 
zapocinje studij slavistike u Zagrebu i zavrsava 1949.g. studij u Beogradu 
gdje seli kod oca svucilisni je profesor na Saobracajnom fakultetu u Beogradu, gdje je 
predavala rusku terminologiju do mirovine u mirovini pise knjige kojima zeli posvjedociti povijesne istine 1989.g. izlazi joj prva knjiga u Sloveniji, ali ne pod njezinim imenom jer zivi u Beogradu 
1991.g. izlazi MOZAIK IZDAJE ( izdanje pod imenom Tomislav Vukovic) 
1992.g. izlazi PREGLED SRPSKOG ANTISEMITIZMA (pod pseudonimom Edo Bojevic, 
izdanje PEGAZ, Zgb, Ilica 26) 
1992.g. radi sigurnosti hitno napusta Beograd, gdje ostavlja stan i svu 
imovinu, te dolazi bez icega 4.7.1992.g. u Zagreb 
1992.g. pise Zidovskim organizacijama o pomoci njenog strica Zidovima, te 
dobiva izraelsku Povelju i medalju pravednika medju narodima, za strica Lujo 
Stefana i sebe osobno; posjecuje Izrael gdje osobno prima Povelju 
1996.g. izdaje pod svojim imenom na temelju prikupljene povijesne gradje 
1998.g. STEPINAC I ZIDOVI (Croatiaprojekt) 
1999.g. ISTINOM I CINJENICAMA ZA HRVATSKU (Zaklada Hrvatskog slova) 
1999.g. MITOVI I ZATAJENA POVIJEST (Kresimir-SlovoM) 
u domoljubnoj namjeri podijelila je sve knjige koje je umjesto novca 
dobivala kao kompenzaciju za autorske honorare 
dobila je mnogostruka obecanja od prosle vlasti za rjesavanje njezinog 
stambenog pitanja i socijalnog stanja, ali nista nije realizirano 
zivjela u Zagrebu u Domu umirovljenika s mirovinom ( 1.300 kn), nedostatnom 
za pokrivanje troskova doma ( 2.300 kn) 
do smrti pisala clanke u interesu hrvatske istine 
Prema zabiljeskama iz razgovora 12.rujna 2000.g. 
Damir Borovcak 
From Vjesnik. John Kraljic 
Umrla Ljubica Stefan, dobitnica priznanja »Pravednik medu narodima« 
ZAGREB, 18. ozujka - Nakon krace i teske bolesti u nedjelju popodne u 
zagrebackoj bolnici Sveti Duh umrla je hrvatska povjesnicarka i dobitnica 
priznanja izraelske drzave »Pravednik medu narodima« Ljubica Stefan. Cijeli 
njen plodni rad mozda se najbolje moze ilustrirati naslovom njene knjige 
objavljene 1999. godine »Istinom i cinjenicama za Hrvatsku«. 
Pisanom rijecju, knjigama i clancima, od kojih je mnoge objavila u Vjesniku, 
ustrajno se borila protiv predrasuda i krivih interpretacija stvorenih u 
dijelu medunarodne javnosti o Hrvatima i njihovu pravu na samostalnu drzavu. 
Tako je ustrajno radila na otkrivanju cinjenica vezanih uz kardinala 
Stepinca i njegovu djelatnost u spasavanju Zidova uoci i tijekom Drugog 
svjetskog rata sto se objavila u knjizi »Stepinac i Zidovi«. Na svijetlo 
dana iznijela je i dokumente o susretu predstavnika Srpske pravoslavne crkve 
s njemackim vojnim vlastima kada su im iskazali lojalnost, a objavila je i 
dokument o apelu 500 najznacajnijih predstavnika srpskog naroda u kojem se 
Srbe poziva na suradnju s nacistima i borbu protiv komunista i Zidova. 
Ljubica Stefan rodena je 1921. u Prilepu, 1939. upisuje latinski i 
talijanski na Filozofskom fakultetu u Zagrebu no studij prekida tijekom 
Drugog svjetskog rata. Diplomirala je 1949. slavistiku na Filozofskom 
fakultetu u Beogradu. Prve knjige objavila je bez imena (»Srbija i 
Albanci«), a po dolasku u Zagreb 1992. objavljuje publikaciju o srpskom 
antisemitizmu i genocidu nad Zidovima. Godine 1998. pak objavljuje svog 
rad »Poslijeratni Titov logor Jasenovac 1945., 1947. i 1948. godina«. 
Bila je clanica saborske Komisije za utvrdivanje ratnih i poratnih zrtava te 
Odbora za ljudska prava povjerenstva za UNESCO Ministarstva vanjskih poslova 
RH. Prilikom dodjele priznanja »Pravednik medu narodima« njoj i njenom ocu 
Luji Stefanu u Yad Vashemu u Jeruzalemu, na njen izricit zahtjev, prvi put 
bilo upisano ime Hrvatska umjesto dotadasnje Jugoslavije. Zbog osobitog 
doprinosa razvitku i ugledu RH i dobrobiti njezinih gradana, tadasnji predsjednik 
Tudman odlikovao ju je za Dan drzavnosti 1998. Redom hrvatskog pletera. 
Marko Barisic 
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» (E) Boka Kotorska - forgotten history
By Nenad N. Bach | Published 03/18/2002 | History | Unrated
Boka Kotorska coastal region-What every Croatian must know ! 
Danny Dabo 
Taken from Dubrovnik, Konavle, Boka kotorska 
Boka kotorska 
The region of Boka kotorska is situated on the south-east of Dubrovnik and Konavle, along the Adriatic coast from Herceg Novi to very near the town of Bar. It was named after the town of Kotor, which is placed in a fascinating fjord. 
Boka kotorska was annexed to Montenegro in 1945. At that time it was populated mostly by Croatian Catholics (Bokelji). Now the ethnic situation in this region is entirely different, especially after 1991. 
The Bokelj's had a very strong fleet, which counted as many as 300 ships in the 18th century. Boka was a rival to Dubrovnik and Venice. It is worth mentioning that one of the Bokeljs - Matej Zmajevic - was the admiral of Baltic navy and the ship-builder of the famous Russian tsar Peter I the Great, and for whom he built a fleet in Voronez. 
Boka kotorska region is under protection of UNESCO, due to its very rich Croatian cultural heritage. The region around the town of Kotor is situated in probably the most beautiful fjord in Europe. In 1979 there was an earthquake that destroyed or seriously damaged numerous cultural monuments. 
Very important historical source for early Croatian history is Libellus Gothorum, a chronicle from 12th century known in Croatia as Ljetopis popa Dukljanina. It was written by Archbishop Grgur of Bar, born in Zadar, and Bar is a coastal town in Boka kotorska. The chronicle represents the oldest historiographic work of Croatian Middle Ages. 
It is interesting that Tripun Kotoran, a Kotor goldsmith, worked on the court of Ivan Grozny in Moscow in 1476. One of the earliest Croatian typographers was Andrija Paltasic (~1450-1500), born in the town of Kotor. He was one of the best Venetian typographers around 1480, who printed more than 40 incunabula, among them the Bible in Italian language. We also mention by the way that a very old missal from 12th century - the Kotor missal, is held in St. Petersburg, Russia. 
Nikola Modruski, born in Boka kotorska, was bishop of Modrus in Lika, Pope's representative at the court of Stjepan Tomasevic in Bosnia, and on the court of the Hungarian king Matijas Corvin in Budim, his huge library is in the Vatican. He wrote a treatise in defense of the Glagolitic Script in Modrus bishopric. It is regarded to be the first polemic treatise in the history of Croatian literature. 
Captain Petar Zelalic (Zhelalich), 18th century, born in Boka kotorska, was a member of Order of Maltese Knights. He became famous after his ship defeated a huge Turkish ship called "The Ottoman Crown." 
In 1782 Krsto Mazarevic from the city of Kotor (in today's Montenegro) performed a flight in two balloons. 
Another outstanding Croat is captain Ivan Visin born in Prcanj in Boka. His travel around the world started in Antwerpen in 1852 (his ship "Splendido" was 30m long, 311 metric tons of cargo) and ended successfully in Trieste in 1859. He was only the sixth after Magellan to do a similar exploit. For his brave undertaking, which was of the historical importance, he had been decorated by a flag of honour Merito navali by the Austrian Emperor (in fact, Visin was the only one who ever obtained such a honour). The trophy is held in Prcanj. Visin also became the honorary citizen of Trieste. 
Antun Lukovic, descendant of an old Croatian family from Boka kotorska, was the chief engineer in the project of building the Suez Canal (1859-1869). 
The Bokelj Marine 809 (Bokeljska mornarica 809) is a confraternity whose aim is to preserve more than a thousand year's Croatian maritime tradition. In 809 the remains of St Tripun were brought by Croatian mariners from Asia Minor to Kotor. The Cathedral of St Tripun in Kotor is the oldest Croatian cathedral, built in 1166. 
It is worth mentioning that New Yugoslavia participated at the international maritime exhibition EXPO'98 in Lisabon, Portugal, with Croatian cultural and maritime heritage of Boka kotorska. This very old and rich heritage was presented as Yugoslav without even mentioning that it belongs to the Croats in Boka kotorska. One can say that the Croats had in fact two pavilions in Lisabon: one belonging to Republic of Croatia (generally considered as one of the most original pavillions on the exhibition), and the other hidden under the name of Yugoslavia. 
Yugoslav press (and even some Croatian!) used to add an innocent number 1 to 809, to obtain 1809, thus reducing the rich history of Croatian mariners in Boka kotorska for no less than 1000 years! 
A delegation of the Bokelj mariners from Boka kotorska participated with their traditional uniforms at the funeral of Stjepan Radic in Zagreb, after his assassination in the Yugoslav Parliament in Belgrade in 1929. 
Boka kotorska is also known as the Bay of Croatian saints. Out of six Croatian saints and blessed, three of them are from Boka kotorska: 
St Leopold Bogdan Mandic, 
blessed Ozana Kotorka, 
blessed Gracija from Mul. 
Also the famous Pope Sixto V has Croatian roots from Boka kotorska on his father's side. 
Out of 38 churches existing in the Kotor region (annexed to Montenegro in 1945) 36 are Catholic and only 2 are Orthodox (one of them was a gift of the Croats in Boka kotorska). On the photo you can see two beautiful churches on islets in the Boka bay, belonging to the Croatian Catholic community in Montenegro, built in the first half of the 17th century (Sveti Juraj and Gospa od Skrpjela). It is interesting that the Church of Gospa od Skrpjela (on the photo) is built on an artificial island! Each year a procession of Croatian Catholics encircles in numerous fishing boats the island of Gospa od Skrpjela and pilgrims throw pebbles around it. An important monument, showing uninterrupted presence of the Croats in Montenegro during many centuries, is the cathedral of St Tripun in the town of Kotor, built as early as 1166. As we have said, it represents the oldest known Croatian cathedral. Its ciborium is decorated with a beutiful wattle pattern which is even older than the church itself, and of the same type as numerous exotic wattle patterns found in many pre-Romanesque churches along the Croatian littoral. The town of Kotor has a surrounding wall which is about 5km long. 
The benedictine order is present in the region of Boka kotorska since the 9th century. Today this region has about a hundred of Catholic churches and chapels. 
One of Croatian churches, given as a gift to Serbian Pravoslav Church in Kotor already in 1657 (during Venetian rule), was the church of St Luka in Kotor. The church itself is much older, and dates from 1195. Above the main entrance to the Church we can now read the following inscription "Serbian Pravoslav Church - 1195." This falsification that appeared in 1990's aims to "prove" that the Serbs built this church already in 1195. In 1995 the Serbs in Montenegro even "celebrated" 800th anniversary of this church which was Catholic until 1657, when it was given as a gift to Serbian Pravoslavs. 
One of the greatest Croatian Baroque painters is Tripo Kokolja (1661-1713), born in the town of Perast in Boka kotorska, whose works of art are held in the Church of Gospa od Skrpjela, and also in the Dominican church in Bol on the island of Brac, in Hvar on the island of Hvar, in Korcula on the island of Korcula (where he died), and in Dubrovnik. 
When a Russian travel-writer P.A. Tolstoy visited Boka in 1698, he noted that the local hills are also inhabited by the Croats. 
In the Boka kotorska churches there are important works of art of many outstanding Croatian artists, like Ivan Mestrovic, Antun Augustincic, Celestin Medovic, and other. 
According to official Montenegrin sources, 40% of real monumental property and 66% of movable monumental property of this republic is in the Boka kotorska region. This means that at least 50% of the entire monumental cultural heritage of Montenegro belongs to the Catholic church in Boka, i.e. to the Croats. And now Montenegro has less than 1% of Catholics. 
A result of the assimilation and systematic persecutions from the Serbs and Montenegrins in the Boka kotorska region was that the population of the Croats began to diminish rapidly since Yugoslavia was created in 1918, and especially after the aggression against Croatia in 1991. Let us illustrate only the "silent" ethnical cleansing in the ex-Yugoslav period (1918-1991). Namely, while in the period from 1910 (when the last Austro-Hungarian recension was held) to 1991 (the last ex-YU recension) the overall population in Boka kotorska doubled, on the other hand the number of Croats dropped in the same area three times. 
The towns of Kotor, Perast, Tivat, Dobrota, Prcanj, Herceg Novi and Budva had a Croatian majority in 1910. A large Catholic majority in 1910 had peninsula Vrmac and southern part of Spich (from Sutomore to the border between Boka kotorska and Montenegro near the town of Bar). For example, 
The number of Croats in Kotor dropped from 69% in 1910 to 7% in 1991; 
in Herceg Novi from 70% to 2%; 
in Tivat from 95% to 23%. 
In 1991 there were only 8% of Croats in Boka kotorska region, and today (after 1991-1995 Serbian and Montenegrin agression on Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina) even less. For example, 350 Croatian families had to leave their native Tivat in the period of 1991-1998. 
In June 1996 msgr. Ivo Gugic, bishop of Kotor, was cruelly killed (strangled by a wire). 
The name of the town of Dobrota in Kotor bay has interesting meaning: Goodness. In fact, the French bonté is even closer to the meaning of Croatian dobrota. And there is a family name - Dobrota, that can be found also among the Croats in Konvle region south of Dubrovnik. 
Vjenceslav Cizek (Gjenovici, Boka kotorska, 1928-2000) has passed away in Dortmund. He was born in a peasant-working class family, educated in Kumbor and Herceg-Novi, and studied philosophy in Sarajevo. For his political beliefs he was sentenced twice to a total of 17 years imprisonment, and due to savage prison tortures he became blind. After his release he lived in Germany. He became internationally known as the "captive of conscience." Vjenceslav Cizek was an exceptional lyricist and satirist of dictatorship. Unfortunately, his literary activity was interrupted by prison. Due to his blindness, he memorised poems while he was in prison using a special mnemonic technique. In his poems he writes about places of his youth - Boka and Konavle. 
In 1998 a new mosaic was exhibited in a Catholic chapel in the town of Budva in Boka kotorska, on the initiative of the Pravoslav Church in the city. This was done without knowledge of the Catholic Church. On the other hand, it is known that the Votive Icon of Our Lady existed on the same place from 1333 to 1949, when local yugoslav communists threw it out into the sea. Fortunately, the old Catholic icon was saved (though damaged), but it was not allowed to be placed where it had been for centuries. 
It is little known that until 1949 Bosnia - Herzegovina had another entrance to the Adriatic sea in the region of Sutorine (between Prevlaka peninsula nad Herceg Novi), which is today in Montenegro. Today quite unjustly the New Yugoslav state claims the right to Croatian Prevlaka. See [Macan] 
As confirmed by all partisan documents related to Boka kotorska and Montenegro during WW2, both regions are mentioned with clear distinction: Boka kotorska (which is defined as a coastal region from Herceg Novi to very near the town of Bar) and Montenegro. Since 1945 the name of Boka kotorska was simply erased. The name of Montenegrins (or Yugoslavs) was imposed to the Croats. Even today many Croats in Boka kotorska are hidden under the name of Yugoslavs (of Catholic faith). 
An outstanding Croatian intellectual born in 1919 in Boka kotorska was Luka Brajnovic, professor of Ethics of the University of Navarra, a former director of the Institute of Artes Liberales, a well known Spanish intellectual. Premio Brajnovic a la communication is a prestigeous Spanish award (500,000 pesets) established in his honor during his lifetime upon the initiative of newspapermen and lecturers from the University of Pamplon. 
For the reader who thinks that these claims are not sufficiently well grounded, I can offer a personal experience from the city of Zagreb, Croatia's capital. In 1971 a recension was held in the whole ex-Yugoslavia. At that time I was a 15 years old secondary school pupil. My math teacher "suggested" to everybody, in front of the whole class, to fill in the form as follows: "If I were on your place, I would fill in Yugoslav in the nationality section, and underline it three times." She was a daughter of a Serbian colonel in Zagreb. It was only many years later that I realized the meaning of this "suggestion." 
Trpimir Macan: Rt Ostra u povijesti i politici, Matica hrvatska, Zagreb 1998, ISBN 953-150-168-8 
Dominik Mandic: Crvena Hrvatska, ZIRAL (Zajednica Izdanja Ranjeni Labud), Chicago-Rim, 1973 (see other Mandic's references related to history of Bosnia and Herzegovina) 
The history of Boka kotorska from Antiquity until 1918, Based on the text "Boka kotorska od najstarijih vremena do 1918" by Ankica and Josip Pecaric. Summarized and translated by Ivica Kresic, University of Chicago. 
Josip Pecaric: Kako su komunisti prodali Boku kotorsku 
Josip Pecaric: Borba za Boku kotorsku (basic reference) 
Agneza Szabo: Hrvati Boke kotorske u doba preporoda i bana Jelacica 
Thank you Darko Zubrinic ! 
Distributed by This message is intended for Croatian Associations/Institutions and their Friends in Croatia and in the World. The opinions/articles expressed on this list do not reflect personal opinions of the moderator. If the reader of this message is not the intended recipient, 
please delete or destroy all copies of this communication and please, let us know! 
» (E) Fellowship Program Social Sciences - Croatia / B-H
By Nenad N. Bach | Published 03/18/2002 | Education | Unrated

The John J. and Nancy Lee Roberts Fellowship Program

Primary Sponsor: International Research and Exchange Board
Deadline: 4/15/2002

Includes Croatia & Bosnia-Hercegovina

This new program supports cutting-edge research in the social sciences on Eastern Europe, the New Independent States (NIS), the Near
East, and Asia. A single grant will be awarded each year for up to 18 months in length. 

Proposal deadline: April 15, 2002 

The Fellow will be notified by May 15, 2002, and research may begin as early as June 1. 

Eligibility: The principal investigator must be a US citizen or permanent resident. A PhD or equivalent terminal degree is required.
Collaborative research programs involving international colleagues are strongly encouraged. 

Maximum Award: $50,000 

Eligible Expenses: Travel and associated expenses; stipends; honoraria; materials; meeting and conference expenses; and publication expenses. Limited equipment may also be authorized if needed to conduct research. 

To Apply: Submit a completed application form; a research proposal (including goal, purpose, and methodology); budget; timeline, and curriculum vitae by the deadline listed above. 

For more information, please contact 

To Download the application materials go to

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