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 »  Home  »  Croatian Language  »  Ivan Vučetić the father of dactiloscopy - fingerprinting as a method of identification
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Ivan Vučetić the father of dactiloscopy - fingerprinting as a method of identification
By Ljerka Galic, prof. | Published  10/13/2008 | Croatian Language , Science , People | Unrated
Juan Vucetich, page 2


Ivan Vučetić during his visit to his native town of Lesina (Hvar) on the island of Lesina (Hvar).


Ivan Vučetić in the middle, among his colleagues in front of loggia in the town of Lesina (Hvar).

 
Životopis

Rođen 20. srpnja 1858. na otoku Hvaru (tadašnjoj Lesini u sklopu Austro-Ugarske Monarhije) kao najstariji od 11-ero djece (od kojih je samo petero doživjelo odraslu dob) bačvara Viktora i supruge Vincenze Covacevich, upisan je u popis rođenih pod imenom Giovanni Antonio Vucetich.

Pomažući ocu u bačvarskom obrtu (čiji se alat djelomično sačuvan nalazi u Muzeju hvarske baštine), usporedo se školovao kod franjevca Bonagracije Marojevića koji je držao Učiteljsku školu, u kojoj je Ivan već u ranoj dobi, uz pismenost, stekao znanje talijanskog i njemačkog jezika, te glazbe. Ona će mu ispunjavati cijeli životni vijek do smrti: već se, služeći austrougarsku vojsku osamdesetih godina, navodno, u Vojnom orkestru u Puli bavio skladanjem, a bio je i kapelan Hvarske glazbe - što mu je pribavilo nadimak "kosić" - a ta ga je ista Hvarska gradskag lazba dočekala izvedbom njegova djela u prigodij edinoga posjeta rodnom Hvaru 1913. godine.Također, osnovavši u Argentini 1900. policijskiorkestar, nastavio je sa skladanjem mazurki ("Ayes de un alma - Vapaji duše"), valcera ("Rio del Danubio - Rijeka Dunav"), polki ( "Siempre pensando a ti - Uvijek mislim na te"), antifona ("Jardin cerrado - HORTUS CONCLUSUS - Zaključani vrt") i dr.

S mlađim bratom Martinom (i nekolicinom prijatelja) Ivan Vučetić je 24. veljače 1884. uplovio u našu najbrojniju, a vjerojatno i najstariju naseobinu hrvatskih iseljenika (većinom iz Dalmacije i Hrvatskog primorja) na južnoameričkom kontinentu, Argentinu.

Nakon prve četiri godine zaposlenja u velikoj državnoj tvrtki za javne radove kanalizacije i otpadnih voda u Buenos Airesu (Obras sanitarias de la Nacion), nastanjuje se u 1882. godine osnovanom gradu La Plati te, budući da je bio pismen i u međuvremenu naučio i španjolski jezik, 14. studenoga 1888. zapošljava se kao "vježbenik" (meritorio) u središnjemu policijskom odjelu pokrajine Buenos Aires. Već iduće godine postaje šef Ureda za statistiku, a od ožujka 1891. pokreEe izdavanje mjesečnog "Statističkog biltena" (Buletin Mensual de la Estadistica) u svrhu objavljivanja prikupljenih podataka svog ureda, istodobno se zanimajući za primjenu tada vrlo rasprostranjenih antropometrijskih istraživanja (čiji je začetnik 1872. talijanski antropolog Cesare Lombroso - diplomirao medicinu u godini Vučetićeva rođenja - s kojim se Vučetić 1896. i dopisivao), napose nakon što mu je šef policije N. G. J. Nunes 15. srpnja 1891. povjerio uspostavljanje "Službe za primjenu Bertillonove antropometrije" (uspostavljene u Parizu 1883.). Ovakav sustav mjerenja obuhvaćao je uspoređivanje visine tijela, raspon raširenih ruku, veličinu glave, a utjecajni Alphonse Bertillon uspio ga je, usprkos mnogim nedostacima, nametnuti diljem svijeta. Najraniji podaci o različitim oblicima linija, odnosno udubljenja na dlanovima ruku i stopalima nogu, te izbočine na koži koje razlikuju jedinku jednu od druge potječu iz Azije, a u pisanim su se dokumentima pojavili prije četiri tisućljeća kod Asiraca i Babilonaca kao tzv. "supur" (znak pisca). Kod antičkih naroda Grka i Rimljana ne nalazimo nikakvih tragova o raspoznavanju osobnoga znakovlja; tek od 18. stoljeća počinju se isticati raznolikosti kako papilarnih linija, tako i kostura. Nakon što je 1860. engleski administrativni činovnik Wiliam Herschel u Indiji odbjegle zatvorenike običavao identifi cirati otiskom prsta, škotski liječnik Henry Faulds (koji je poslije odao priznanje i tvrdio da je upravo Ivan Vučetić prvi na svijetu legalno i metodički primijenio svoj sustav) objavio je 1880. prvi članak o praktičnoj identifi kaciji kriminalaca s pomoću otiska prsta u Japanu i u njemu dokazao da dva otiska nikada nisu identična, do Ivana Vučetića došlo je djelo britanskog antropologa Sir Francisa Galtona (rođaka Charlesa Darwina) "Finger prints". U tom je djelu proučio, opisao i znanstveno obradio otiske papilarnih linija uobličivši ih u tri osnovne skupine; lukove, zamke i krugove, te postavio tri osnovna načela daktiloskopije; postojanost, nepromjenjivost i beskrajnu raznolikost. Ipak, u svom se djelu nije bavio praktičnom primjenom svog otkrića, niti razradio pogodni sustav klasifikacije.

Tek je Ivan Vučetić 1891. prvi izvršio razvrstavanje otisaka prstiju lijeve i desne ruke po grupama, dao im klasifikacijske oznake i izradio obrazac za desetoprstno (objavljeno u "Sistemu identifikacije - Sistema de filiacion" 1. listopada 1896. - za čije je objelodanjivanje utrošio vlastita novčana sredstva). U tom je djelu uvjereno, usprkos silnim protivljenjima i omalovažavanjima, branio svoju metodu, što mu je narušilo zdravstveno stanje (do smrti je patio od čira na želucu, a dokrajčila ga je tuberkuloza) - uzimanje otisaka, tzv. daktiloskopski fiš (ficha).

Njegova daktiloskopska formula bila je u obliku razlomka, pri čemu je upotrijebio kombinaciju od osam znakova (4 broja i 4 slova): lukove je označio slovom "A" (arco) i brojem 1, unutarnju zamku slovom I (presilla interna) i brojem 2, vanjsku zamku slovom E (presilla externa) i brojem 3, a krug slovom V (verticulo) i brojem 4. Na taj način dobio je praktički primjenjiv sustav klasifikacije otisaka papilarnih linija i stvorio temelje nove znanosti, koju je, prema sugestiji argentinskog znanstvenika matematičara Francisca Latzine (rođenog u Brnu, također u Austro-Ugarskoj Monarhiji), 11 1894. nazvao "daktiloskopijom" (umjesto prvotnog naziva sastavljenog od triju grčkih riječi "iknofalangometrija", a koja je sadržavala 101 tip otisaka), nakon što je iste godine na nekoliko mjeseci ukinut ured za identifikaciju. Nekoliko dana prije navršene 33. godine života, 8. srpnja, Ivan Vučetić s pomoću krvavog otiska na vratima s mjesta zločina (koji mu je poslao inspektor Eduardo M. Alvarez) razotkrio je počinitelja ubojstva šestogodišnjeg dječaka i četverogodišnje djevojčice: znameniti "slučaj Rojas", koji je ušao u anale svjetske kriminalistike, potresao je 1892. argentinski gradić Necocheu. Optuženi seljak Pedro Velasquez, rastavljen od Francisce Rojas, uporno je poricao kazneno djelo: svoju djecu na spavanju ubila je vlastita majka u dobi od 27 godina. Iste je godine prije spomenuti C. Lombroso u Torinu osobnu zbirku kostura, lubanja i fotografi ja rizičnih ljudskih skupina pretočio u muzej. Nakon što su s pomoću uzimanja otisaka prstiju riješena još dva slučaja, metoda je potvrđena, te 1. svibnja 1893. vlada pokrajine Buenos Aires objavljuje da je u sustav antropometrije uključeno i uzimanje otisaka prstiju, kako je objavljeno u mjesečnom izvještaju u Zakonodavnoj skupštini.

Dana 1. siječnja 1893. Ivan Vučetić objavljuje prvo djelo: "Opće upute za antropometrijski sistem", u kojem se poziva na istraživanja i razvrstavanja F. Galtona čijom se zaslugom u Engleskoj 1901. (1905. postaje na sudu dokazno sredstvo), u Austro-Ugarskoj 1902., u Njemačkoj 1903. (u Hamburgu šef policije dr. Gustav Roscher uvodi svoj posebni sustav klasifikacije i danas poznat i nazvan njegovim prezimenom) i kojim se rasprostranjuje daktiloskopija.

Devetog lipnja 1894. šef policije Lozano odobrava Vučetićev prijedlog za osnivanjem stručne policijske knjižnice u La Plati, te ga imenuje direktorom, a više zastupnika pokrajinske skupštine 22. lipnja zahtijeva da se donese zakon kojim bi se Vučetću za zasluge dodijelila nagrada od 5000 argentinskih pesosa. Od 1. siječnja 1896. u Argentini se napušta "antropometrija", te se kao službeni sistem uvodi "Generalni registar građana" temeljen na daktiloskopiji.

Od ožujka 1901., kad Ivan Vučetić prvi put izlaže svoj daktiloskopski sistem kao delegat policije iz La Plate na II. znanstvenom kongresu Latinske Amerike u Montevideu, uslijedilo je uvođenje njegove metode i uspostavljanje ureda diljem Južne Amerike: 4. listopada 1902. pokrajinski Vrhovni sud nare?uje da se u svim kaznenim postupcima zatraže podaci iz Ureda za identifikaciju, iste godine 20. prosinca i brazilski Kongres službeno uvodi Vučetićev sistem identifi kacije, 1903. Čile, a 20. listopada 1905. na sastanku šest južnoameričkih policija, kojim je predsjedao Ivan Vučetić, prihvaćen je prijedlog o stvaranju posebnog identifi kacijskog lista sa svim podacima o osobi.

Godine 1904., kada je objavljeno njegovo najznačajnije djelo "Dactiloscopia comparada" (Usporedna daktiloskopija) i u Zagrebu je počelo daktiloskopiranje zatvorenika (premda su razvrstani tek 1906., i to po već spomenutom "Roscherovu sistemu". Iste godine liječnički kongres u Buenos Airesu dodijelio je Vučetiću nagradu, a u pismu koje mu je 24. kolovoza uputio liječnik i kriminalist Alexandre Lacassagne (rođen iste, 1843. kad i prije spomenuti F. Latzina) njegov je sistem nazvao "vucetichisme - vučetićizam", uvriježen poslije i kod mnogih drugih autora.

Istodobno, svoju je nesebičnu brigu za druge iskazao osnivanjem udruge "Kap mlijeka", 1905., kojom je omogućio egzistenciju djeci stradalih policijskih službenika, a koja je nadišla svoje razmjere i prerasla u veliku humanitarnu zakladu za svu nezbrinutu djecu. Priznanja Vučetićevoj metodi identifikacije stižu i iz Europe: Italije, Francuske, Norveške, Španjolske, te postaje počasnim članom mnogih znanstvenih akademija i ustanova: u drugoj domovini Argentini mu je 29. siječnja 1909. dodijeljen naslov "Vještaka daktiloskopije - perito identifi cador", nakon čega je zakonom iz 1911. i zakonom naloženo stvaranje registra s daktiloskopskim sustavom za cjelokupno argentinsko stanovništvo.

Jednokratna mirovina od 25000 argentinskih pesosa omogućila mu je ostvarenje velike želje da se potkraj 1912. sam otisne na znanstveno putovanje po Sjevernoj Americi, Aziji i Europi, posjetivši 18 zemalja i 43 grada. Upoznavao se s radom drugih ureda te im prenosio svoja iskustva. Do tada je već dvaput bio udovac (Delisa Damiani 1888., Lola Etcheverry 1903.), a treEi se put oženio 1907. (Maria Cristina Flores): imao je četiri kćeri (Maria Teresa, Maria Debora, Maria Teresita, Celia Josefi na) i jednog sina (Juan). Svi su oni postali ugledni argentinski građani.

Tom je prigodom iz Trsta ušao u Austro-Ugarsku Monarhiju, te posjetio i svoj rodni Hvar (još uvijek Lesinu), gdje se susreo s brojnom rodbinom i majkom. Na povratku je želio u Parizu posjetiti svojeg upornog osporavatelja A. Bertillona, koji ga, navodno, uopće nije htio susresti. Nakon povratka u Argentinu (s mirovinom od 300 dolara mjesečno) Vučetić se polako povlači iz aktivnog života: posvećuje se pisanju knjiga i skupljanju dragocjene znanstvene građe koju 16. lipnja 1923. poklanja Fakultetu pravnih i društvenih znanosti Sveučilišta u La Plati, a koja postaje osnovom da se 11. listopada 1924., nekoliko mjeseci prije smrti 25. siječnja 1925. u gradu Doloresu, osnuje policijski muzej - Museo Policial, s Vučetićevom spomen-sobom.

Ivanu Vučetiću u čast policijska škola (akademija) osnovana 27. lipnja 1941. u Rosariju, nedaleko od La Plate nosi ime "Vucetich", kao i jedna gradska četvrt s parkom u La Plati; u sastavu Pravnog fakulteta u Splitu 1968. osnovan je Kriminalistički institut "Ivan Vučetić", a u sklopu Ministarstva unutarnjih poslova djeluje od 1953. Centar za kriminalistička vještačenja, koji od 1997. nosi ime "Ivan Vučetić".

Često se, gotovo kao po nekom životnom pravilu, naše životne težnje i uvjerenja koja branimo, suočavaju s otporom, nerazumijevanjem i zavišću, kako pojedinaca, tako i okoline; prave vrijednosti, ipak, nadvladavaju filter vremena i upravo s vremenskim odmakom upućuju na dalekosežnost svojega značenja... Stotinu pedeseta godišnjica rođenja Ivana Vučetića - u Argentini Juan Vucetich - prigoda je da mu, makar djelomično, vratimo dug i iskažemo zahvalnost zato što je, povezavši svojim djelom Hrvatsku i Argentinu, uspostavio mostove na kontinentima svjetske povijesne pozornice!

Ljerka Galic, prof.

Izvori: Atilio Milanta, Krsto Pasinović, Revista Platense, Zdravko Zlatar, Boris Blažević.


Biography

Born on the 20th of July 1858 on the island of Hvar (then Lesina in the Austro-Hungarian monarchy) as the eldest of 11 children (of which only five survived into adulthood) to barrel maker Viktor and is wife Vincenza Covacevich, he was entered into the birth register under the name of Giovanni Antonio Vucetich.

Assisting his father in the barrel making trade (a part of whose tools are preserved at the Hvar Heritage Museum) he also received an education from Franciscan monk Bonagracije MarojeviE, who held a Teacher’s Academy, where he gained at an early age literacy and a knowledge of the Italian language and music. It would be an integral part of his life until he passed away: serving in the Austro-Hungarian army in the 1880s he is said to have early on composed music for the Military Orchestra in Pula, and the Hvar Municipal Orchestra which received him with a rendition of one of his works during a visit to his native Hvar in 1913). Also, having founded a police orchestra in Argentina in 1900, he continued to compose mazurkas (“Ayes de un alma” - “A Cry From The Soul”), waltzes (“Rio del Danubio” - “The River Danube”), polkas (“Siempre pensando a ti” - “I Always Think Of You”), antiphons (“Jardin cerrado-Hortus Coclusus” - “The Locked Garden”) and others.

With younger brother Martin (and a few friends) Ivan Vučetić on 24 February 1884 set sail for our most numerous, and possibly also the oldest, settlement of Croatian emigrants (most coming from Dalmatia and the northern Croatian seaboard) on the South American continent, Argentina.

After his fi rst 4 years of employment at the large state canalisation and waste water public works company in Buenos Aires (Obras sanitarias de la Nacion), he settles in the city of La Plata founded in 1882 and, as he was literate, in the meantime learned Spanish. On 14 November 1888 he fi nds employment as a trainee (meritorio) at the central police department in the province of Buenos Aires. By the next year he had already become the head of the Bureau of Statistics and in March of 1891 launched the "Monthly Bulletin of Statistics" (Buletin Mensual de la Estadistica) with the aim of publishing data from his offi ce, at the same time promoting the implementation of the, at the time very widespread anthropometric research (initiated by Italian anthropologist Cesare Lambroso in 1872 with whom Vučetić corresponded by the end of the century), especially after police chief N. G. J. Nunes in 15 July of 1891 entrusted him with establishing a "service for the implementation of Bertillon’s anthropometry" (established in Paris in 1883). This system of measurement included a comparison of body height, the span of outstretched arms, the size of the head, and the infl uential Alphonse Bertillon managed, in spite of its numerous drawbacks, to impose it around the world. The earliest data on various forms of lines, i.e. depressions on the palm and soles of the feet, and protrusions on the skin that differentiate individuals originate in Asia, and appear in written documents four thousand years ago among the Assyrians and Babylonians as the so-called supur (sign of the writer). In ancient Greece and Rome we fi nd no traces of an awareness of personal designations; it was only in the 18th century that an awareness grew of differences between both papillary ridges and skeletons. After English administrative clerk William Herschel in 1860 in India used fi ngerprints to identify fugitive prisoners, and Scottish physician Henry Faulds (who later recognised Ivan Vučetić and stated that it was he in fact that had been the fi rst in the world to legally and methodically implement his system) in 1880 published an article on the practical identifi cation of criminals using fi nger prints in Japan and in it proved that no two prints are identical, Ivan Vučetić came by a work by British anthropologist Sir Francis Galton (a relative of Charles Darwin) entitled Finger Prints. In the work he studied, described and scientifi cally processed the prints of papillary ridges dividing them into three basic groups; arches, loops and whorls, and established the three basic principles of dactiloscopy; durability, immutability and infi nite diversity In his work, however, he did not include the practical implementation of his discovery, nor did he work out a suitable system of classification.

It was only in 1891 that Ivan Vučetić first undertook a classifi cation of the prints of the fi ngers of the left and right hand by groups, give them classifi cation designations and created a template for ten-digit fi ngerprinting, the so-called dactiloscopic fi che (published in the "System of Identifi cation - Sistema de fi liacion" on 1 October 1896 - the publication of which he fi nanced himself - and in which he confi dently, in spite of immense opposition and repudiation, defended his method, an effort that saw his health deteriorate - he suffered from a ulcer until his death and was struck down by tuberculosis).

His dactiloscopic formula had the form of a fraction using a combination of eight signs (4 numbers and 4 letters): the designated arches with the letter A (arco) and the number 1, internal loops with the letter I (presilla interna) and the number 2, and outer loops with the letter E (presilla externa) and the number 3, and a whorl with the letter V (verticulo) and the number 4. In that way he arrived at a practically applicable classifi cation system of the prints of papillary ridges and set the foundation of a new science which he in 1894 called "dactiloscopy" (instead of the fi rst name composed of three Greek words, "icnophalangometry", and which contained 101 fi ngerprint types) following the suggestion of Argentinean mathematician Francisco Latzin (born in Brno, also in the Austro-Hungarian monarchy), after the offi ce for identifi cation was shut down that same year.


A few days before he turned 33 years of age, on 8 July Ivan Vučetić used a bloody fi ngerprint on a door from the scene of a crime (sent to him by inspector Eduardo M. Alvarez), to uncover the murderer of a six-year-old boy and a fouryear- old girl: the famous "Rojas Case", which entered the annals of forensic science around the world, shook the Argentinean town of Necochea in 1892. The accused villager Pedro Velasquez, divorced from Francisca Rojas, persistently denied committing the crime: the 27-year-old mother had killed her sleeping children. After two more cases were solved using fi ngerprinting, the method was confirmed, and on 1 May of 1893 the government of the province of Buenos Aires announced that fi ngerprinting was to be included in the system of anthropometry, as was published in the monthly bulletin from the Legislative Assembly.

On January 1st 1893 Ivan Vučetić publishes his first work: "General Instructions For the Anthropometric System", in which he cites the research and classifi cation of F. Galton, who is responsible for seeing the introduction of dactiloscopy in England in 1901 (admissible as evidence in court in 1905), in Austria-Hungary in 1902, in Germany in 1903 (in Hamburg the chief of police Dr. Gustav Roscher introduced his own system of classification, known to this day and named after him).

On June 9th 1894 police chief Lozano approves Vučetić's proposal to set up a police research library in La Plata, and appoints him director, and on 22 June numerous delegates to the provincial assembly demand that a law be passed that would award Vučetić with 5,000 Argentinean pesos for his work.

On 1 January 1896 Argentina abandons "anthropometry" and introduces the "General Register of Citizens", based on dactiloscopy, as the offi cial system.

From March of 1901 when Ivan Vučetić exhibits his dactiloscopic system for the fi rst time as a police delegate from La Plata at the 2nd Latin America Scientifi c Congress in Montevideo, his method was introduced and bureaus established across South America: On 4 October of 1902 the provincial Supreme Court orders that data be sought from the Bureau of Identifi cation in all criminal procedures, and that same year the Brazilian Congress on 20 December offi cially introduces Vučetić's identifi cation system, Chile in 1903, and on 20 October 1905 at a meeting of 6 South American police departments presided over by Ivan Vučetić a proposal was accepted to establish a special personal data identification sheet.

In 1904 when his most signifi cant work, "Dactiloscopia comparada" (Comparative Dactiloscopy) was published Zagreb too introduced the dactiloscopic fi ngerprinting of inmates (although they were only classifi ed by 1906 using the already mentioned Roscher system). That same year a congress of physicians in Buenos Aires conferred an award to him, and in a letter sent to him on 24 April physician and forensic scientist Alexandre Lacassagne (born on the same year as the already mentioned F. Latzin - 1843) called his system Vucetichisme, a name that became customary later on with numerous authors.

At the same time he demonstrated his selfless care for others, establishing the Drop of Milk association in 1905 to care for the children of police offi cers who fell in the line of duty. The organisation grew far beyond its original concept and went on to become a large humanitarian foundation for needy children.

Recognition of Vučetić's method also came from Europe: Italy, France Norway, Spain, and he was made an honorary member of many scientifi c academies and institutions: on 29 January 1909 his second homeland of Argentina awarded him the title of Dactiloscopy Expert - perito identifi cador after which an Act of 1911 introduced the legal requirement to establish a dactiloscopic system registry for the entire Argentinean population.

A one-time pension payment of 25,000 Argentinean pesos allowed him to achieve a great desire of his, and in 1912 he embarked on a scientifi c journey through North America, Asia and Europe, visiting 18 countries and 43 cities. He learned of the work being carried out in other bureaus and passed on his own experience to them.

He had by then already been widowed twice (Delisa Damiani 1888, Lola Etcheverry 1903), and married for a third time in 1907 (Maria Cristina Flores) he had four daughters (Maria Teresa, Maria Debora, Maria Teresita, Celia Josefi na) and one son (Juan). They all went on to become respected citizens of Argentina At the time he entered the Austro-Hungarian monarchy by way of Trieste and visited his native Hvar (still called Lesina) where he met with his many relatives and mother. On the return journey he wished to meet in Paris with his persistent repudiator A. Bertillon who, it is alleged, did not wish at all to meet him.

Upon his return to Argentina (with a pension of 300 dollars a month) Vučetić gradually withdrew from active life: he dedicates himself to writing and collecting precious scientifi c material he granted on 16 June 1923 to the Faculty of Legal and Social Sciences at the University of La Plata, which formed the foundation for the establishment on 11 October 1924, a few months before his death on 25 January 1925, of a police museum, the Museo Policial, in the city of Dolores featuring a Vučetić memorial room.

In honour of Ivan - Juan Vucetich a police school (academy) founded in Rosario, a place not far from La Plata, on 27 June 1941 bears his name; a small settlement there is also named after him. The Ivan Vučetić institute of forensic sciences was founded within the Faculty of Law in Split in 1968. A centre for forensic research, established in 1953 within the interior ministry was in 1997 named the Ivan Vučetić centre.

Often, almost like a rule in life, our aspirations in life and the convictions we defend are faced with resistance, misunderstanding and envy, both from individuals and from society in general: true value, nevertheless, overcomes the fi lter of time and it is indeed with the distance afforded by time that far-reaching implications are made clear... The 150th anniversary of the birth of Ivan Vučetić is an opportunity to, at least in part, repay our debt and express our gratitude for the bridges he created on scene of global history in linking Croatia and Argentina!

Ljerka Galic, prof.
 
Sources: Atilio Milanta, Krsto Pasinović, Revista Platense, Zdravko Zlatar, Boris Blažević.

Source: Ivan Vučetić, Juan Vucetich 1858.-1925., concept author & event coordinator Ljerka Galic, Croatian Heritage Foundation, Zagreb 2008., ISBN 978-953-6525-47-8

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