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(E) Croatian Inmates in German Concentration Camps
By Nenad N. Bach | Published  03/31/2005 | History | Unrated
(E) Croatian Inmates in German Concentration Camps

 

CROATIAN INMATES IN GERMAN CONCENTRATION CAMPS

By John Peter Kraljic

INTRODUCTION. The 60th anniversary of the liberation of Auschwitz brings to mind the relatively unknown story of ethnic Croat inmates in German concentration camps.

CROATS AS VICTIMS OF ITALIANS. A substantial portion of Croatia came under direct Italian control during World War II. Italy annexed outright large swathes of Croatian territory and, following the outbreak of uprisings in adjacent areas of the Independent State of Croatia in the summer of 1941, took over control of a belt of land stretching along the Adriatic Sea.

In annexed areas, which included most Croatian islands, a large area of the northern Kvarner around Rijeka, and the cities of Sibenik and Split, the Italian fascists authorities instituted a policy of ethnic cleansing not unlike what they had put into place in Istria, Rijeka, Cres, Losinj and Zadar after they had annexed those lands following World War I. The Italians closed all Croatian language schools, transformed Croatian place and personal names into Italian ones and eliminated all indications showing any connection of these ethnic Croat areas to Croatia (e.g., the removal of Ivan Mestrovic's statue of Croatian Bishop Grgur Ninski in Split). These policies understandably gave rise to resistance among the Croat population who began to support Partisan activity in the area as well as in adjacent NDH territory.

In order to break the back of resistance, Italian military and civilian officials instituted a policy of mass terror involving raids, executions and deportations. In Dalmatia, for example, local military authorities executed 40 hostages in May 1942 after 22 telegraph poles had been cut down near Sibenik. Worse was to come in July when Italian troops executed 91 inhabitants of Podhum near Rijeka and deported the remaining 889 people of the village. Another military campaign conducted by Italian troops in June led to 33 executions in the Biokovo region. In November 1942, Italian troops opened an artillery barrage on the town of Primosten after Partisans had killed 14 Italian sailors in a confrontation nearby. 80 people were killed as a result of this war crime, while another 166 were taken to camps.

The Italians established a number of camps in Croatia to house these deportees. They included camps in Lovran, Bakar, Rab and Molat. At least 1,000 mostly Croats died in the Molat camp. At the camp in Rab, the largest Italian camp in Croatia, Slovenes and Croats (primarily from the Gorski kotar region) were housed for a 13 month period. Close to 1,500 people died in Rab, approximately 500 of whom were Croats.

Many more Croats were placed in camps or otherwise interned in Italy. A recent estimate places the total number of Croats imprisoned in Italy during the War at 60,000. The largest of these camps, Gonars near Udine, held around 4,000 Croats in February 1943, 1,500 of them children.

The people interned in these camps or prisons in Italy included many Croat leaders, such as Viktor Ruzic, the former governor of the Savska Province (later convicted by Yugoslav communist authorities as being a "collaborator!"). Italian aims in establishing these camps clearly extended beyond merely cutting support for the Partisans. It became part and parcel of Italy's goal to change the ethnic composition of their newly annexed territories.

The camps formed only one means to reach this goal. Italy also expelled thousands of Croats into the NDH and employed Chetnik forces to do the dirty work for them. A Chetnik, unit, for example, working in conjunction with Italian forces in an action in Biokovo, killed 160 Croats, including three priests in September 1942, while in another joint operation in the Mostar area about 200 Croats and 100 Muslims had been killed by them. A report by a local commander to Chetnik leader Draza Mihailovic claimed that over 2,000 Croats and Muslims had been killed in the region by the Chetniks. Yet another Chetnik unit executed 200 Croats in the hinterland of Omis in the same month. That the Italians encouraged the Chetniks in their rampages was shown by the 10,000 Lira reward provided to Chetniks who executed 23 Croat Partisans in the Rujiste area in 1942.(All the above is based on the work of Ivan Kovacic, Kampor 1942-1943: Hrvati, Slovenci i Zidovi u koncentracijskom logoru na otoku Rabu, Rijeka, 1998, and Zlatko Dizdar, "Talijanksa politika prema hrvatskim prostorima i njezine posljedice tijekom Drugog svjestkog rata," in Talijanska uprava na Hrvatskom prostoru, Zagreb, 2001).

One must keep these matters in mind when discussing issues related to concentration camp victims. The few examples of repression noted above shows that many, many more Croats had been killed "on the spot" rather than in camps. This continued to be the case when the Germans arrived along Croatia's eastern Adriatic Coast in late 1943.

As an epilogue, it should be noted that many of the Italians individually responsible for these crimes never saw any justice. The Western Allies, in an effort to shore up Italy in the face of a threatened takeover by the Communist Party, ignored all requests to extradite these criminals.

GERMANS IN CROATIA. The Germans had forces in the NDH prior to autumn 1943. However, their presence became pronounced after Italy's capitulation in September 1943. Italy's surrender led to a national uprising throughout Dalmatia and in Istria. While the Communists have taken sole credit for these uprisings, and though their role cannot be ignored, the events along Croatia's Adriatic coast represent a true national revolt against the Italian occupiers. The Communists could count on only 85 Party members in all of Istria at the time with several hundred sympathizers. No Partisan units of any significance had been in the Peninsula at the time. Nevertheless, literally using stones, sticks and bluffs, local Croats obtained control of all of Istria, other than the city of Pula. The city of Split saw a similar uprising. These actions represent a truly unique historical event and nothing on such a scale took place anywhere else in Axis Europe.

The Germans feared that the Allies across the Adriatic in Italy would use the vacuum which had been created on the Croatian coast as an opportunity to send their troop there. In October 1943 the Germans launched the so-called Rommel Offensive in Istria during which they killed approximately 5,000 people, half of them Partisans and half civilians. The Germans subsequently established a separate administrative unit under their direct control consisting of Istria, Rijeka, the Kvarner Islands, Trieste and the Friuli known as the Adriatische Kustenland.

During the next several months they slowly moved down the coast line. Still, their control quite often only extended over larger towns and their immediate surroundings. As the Allies moved toward Rome, the Germans again worried that the Allies would move across the Adriatic. They launched a number of offensive operations in order to establish tighter control over these areas. These actions included one in Istria in late April and early May 1944 when they burned down practically all of the villages of the Istrian Kras region (bounded roughly by Ucka Mountain, Pazin, the Slovenian border and the Rijeka-Trieste road). During this operation, on 30 April 1944 the Germans executed 269 Croats in the village of Lipa alone.

The repressive policies of the Germans continued in Dalmatia. It led to a wave of refugees, mostly Croats from the Dalmatian islands and mainland, across the Adriatic to Allied-held Bari. The Allies eventually placed these tens of thousands of Croats in refugee camps in Italy and in El Shatt, Egypt where an estimated 2,000 to 3,000 died. (Vladimir Zerjavic, Population Losses in Yugoslavia 1941-1945, Zagreb, 1997, p. 148).

The entry of the Germans into the coastal areas of Croatia and Italy led to a significant number of Croats being sent to German concentration camps. The Croats sent to the camps can generally be divided into two categories: (i) those who had been previously imprisoned in camps in Italy and who failed to reach the Allied lines (approximately 10,000 of those who escaped, consisting of Slovenes and Croats, later formed the so-called Overseas Partisan Brigades. The Allies later transported them to Dalmatia where they fought in 1944 and 1945); and (ii) those captured by the Germans in their military operations.

HOW MANY CROATS WERE IN GERMAN CAMPS? The number of Croats who ended up in these camps remains an open question. Demographic historian Vladimir Zerjavic has written that 3,000 Croats died in Germany, Poland and Austria during the War, but gives no hint concerning how many survived. (Zerjavic, Population Losses, p. 149). Some information concerning certain areas has been made available. A 1945 report concerning war crimes in Kastav near the city of Rijeka showed that 196 people from the town had been taken to Germany (while 56 had been shot and 2,311 had been taken to "camps" (presumably Italian ones)). (Hrvoje Mezulic, Fasizam: Krstitelj i palikuca, Zagreb, 1946, reprint, Pazin, 1997, p. 45). A list reproduced by historian Mihael Sobolevski contains details of 68 individuals, Croats and Italians, from the eastern portion of Rijeka (which had been part of Italy until 1947) killed in German concentration camps. ("Stvarni ljudski gubici na podrucju grada Rijeke u Drugom svjetskom ratua," in Zbornik Sveti Vid, vol. VII, 2002, pp. 96-98).

A further 250 Croat and Muslim soldiers are known to have been killed in the Sachsenhausen concentration camp. They had been recruited and drafted to serve in the 13th Pioneer Battalion of the 13th SS Division Croatia. After having been stationed in Villefranche-de-Rouerguea in France, the Battalion revolted with the plan to join the French resistance. The Germans crushed this revolt, the first known mutiny of German forces during World War II. (Zdravko Dizdar, "Prva pobuna u nacistickoj vojsci: Pobuna Trinaestoga pionirskog bataljuna 13 SS Divizije Croatia u -Villefranche-de-Rouergueu 17. Rujna 1943 godine," in Casopis za suvremenu povijest, 1993).

CROATIAN ARTISTS AND THE HOLOCAUST. Mention should be made of Croatian sculptor Ivan Mestrovic, sculptor Dusan Dzamonja, and Croatian painter Krsto Hegedusic.

Mestrovic's first wife had been Ruza Klein, a Croatian Jew, from whom he had been divorced before the War. Ruza and 30 members of her family later disappeared in the Holocaust. Mestrovic was an ardent anti-Nazi and refused Hitler's entreaties to exhibit his works in Germany. Mestrovic designed a Holocaust memorial for New York City's Riverside Park in 1951 which was never built.

Dusan Dzamonja, born in Macedonia, has lived in Croatia since 1945. He was one of six first prize winners in a 1959 competition for a monument to the victims of Dachau.

Krsto Hegedusic was imprisoned in a number of Italian camps during the War. His naĆÆve paintings and sketches concerning Holocaust themes have been included in several retrospective works.

AN UNAPPRECIATED HISTORY. The topic of Croats in German concentration camps has not been studied in any great detail. The reasons for this partly arises from the fact that the Germans considered many of the Croat and Slovene prisoners in their camps to be Italians. Italian inmates had an inverted red triangle on their camp uniforms with the letter "I" or the letters "IT" emblazoned on them (some had the letter "J" on the red triangle meaning that they came from Yugoslavia; the red triangle represented political prisoners). Boris Pahor, a Slovene survivor of the camps, noted that this designation offended Slovene and Croat inmates: "Tomaz had a big capital I in the middle of his red triangle - he was captured as an Italian citizen - but insisted, as any Slovene would, that he was a Yugoslav. No Slovene wanted to be exterminated in this place as an Italian, for since the end of the First World War the Italian government had been trying to eradicate him on his native soil. And Istrian Croats too, like the Slovenes, resisted sharing the fate of a people whose country they had annexed against their will. The proximity to death removes all masks, . . . though it wouldn't matter when we went down to the terrace with the oven." (Boris Pahor, Pilgrim Among the Shadows, New York, 1995, p. 48).

Pahor's memoirs point out another reason this history has remained overlooked - the failure by Croatians to honor those of their brethren who had been victimized in the past. Pahor writes of another Slovene prisoner in Mauthausen, Zora Perello. Pahor compares her to Anne Frank as she too had written of her experiences. "But we Slovenes are too negligent a people to have collected Zora's letters or her diaries from the period that preceded her imprisonment by the Germans. . . . We wouldn't know how to present her to the world. To this day our nation's meager soul has not managed to free itself from the cocoon of its pain. We embrace our warriors, the heroes that fell on the battlefield; after centuries of subjugation they are a miraculous flame rising from the ashes; but it does not occur to us to celebrate the fate of a young girl, a beautiful high school student. Like all small people we have a penchant for the gigantic." (Pahor, p. 140).

A similar indictment can be made of Croatia's treatment of its victims. While Italian prisoners of concentration camps have their own active association, no such organization had ever been established in Croatia. Moreover, the memoirs of those who survived the camps are scanty - I have only come across two such memoirs, one of which appeared in 1946!

It was in an attempt to bring this matter to attention of the public that I put the list below together.

A DESCRIPTION OF THE LIST AND ITS SHORTCOMINGS. The list suffers from a number of shortcomings. First, the information is based only on published sources. Second, my access to sources has been limited to books which mostly concentrate on the northern Adriatic area and I had limited ability to review works concerning the War in Dalmatia which would no doubt have yielded more information.

We are fortunate to have a number of lists of people killed during World War II in certain communities in Croatia which include information on where they had been killed (I especially recommend the work Gubici Liburnijskog kraja u Drugom svjetskom ratu which lists all those killed (including some killed by the Partisans and those killed while serving in the Italian Army) from the area of Opatija). However, such lists fail to list those who survived the camps.

I also note that I limited the list to ethnic Croats - I attempted to exclude ethnic Italians from Istria as well as Jews.

Further, a question arises as to how to treat Croatian forced laborers sent to Germany during the War. Ivica Racan, for example, the former Prime Minister of Croatia, was born in a camp for forced laborers during the War where his father was one of those who died.

SOME PEOPLE TO NOTE ON THE LIST. Despite its incompleteness, the list presents a fascinating array of persons who suffered and some who died in these camps. I note that two persons who survived subsequently became Roman Catholic priests (Zivan Bezic and Albin Kordic) while a number were priests while in the camps, including a Croatian priest (Matthias Semeliker) from the Austrian region of Burgenland which has a large Croat minority.

The father of Croatian politician Ivan Jakovcic was in Dachau.

The family of Ante Mandic, an official with ZAVNOH and a member of the Royal Regency, are among those who survived German camps.

Of extreme interest is the story of Rude Paskvan who with a number of other Croats were among the 255 survivors of a mistaken bombing raid by the Allies on a group of ships holding 12,000 concentration camp survivors in May 1945.

At least two of the survivors of the camps ultimately were executed by Communist authorities after false accusations were made against them (Oskar Juranic and Mario Stremberger).

One of the inmates was born and died in the United States (Ivan Bostijanic) while another had lived in New York for a time (Igancije Bulimbasic).

Edo Calic was a survivor of the camps. He became a leading authority in Europe on the history of Nazism and was a member of the Croatian Academy of Arts and Sciences.

Some members of the Sersic family on Rab were arrested after having helped American intelligence officers.

SAN SABBA CAMP. A note on the little known San Sabba camp which was located in Trieste. This camp had been established by the German authorities in a former rice factory (hence it is also called Risseria) after they entered the area. It was used as a transit camp but also had been used to kill inmates for which purpose a crematoria had been established, the only one in Italy. It held many Croats and Slovenes and 2,000 people ultimately died there.

SOURCES AND ABBREVIATIONS USED. The list is in alphabetical, English order. I have cited each work where the information appears. A list of the works cited follows at the end of the list.

The descriptions use a number of abbreviations, most of which relate to Communist and Partisan organizations.

AFZ is the Anti-Fascist Women's Front, a pro-Partisan, Communist-controlled organization.

AVNOJ is the Anti-Fascist Council for the National Liberation of Yugoslavia, a Partisan, Communist-dominated parliament.

CP stands for the Communist Party and CPC the Communist Party of Croatia, CPI is the Communist Party of Italy and CPY is the Communist Party of Yugoslavia.

NOO stands for National Liberation Committees. These committees were pro-Partisan administrative units which worked both in Partisan controlled territory as well as underground.

NOP is the National Liberation Movement. This is the name of the pro-Partisan movement which was historically used by Communist authors. It is still a term used in Croatian historiography today to describe pro-Partisans.

USAOH was a Communist run front organization.

SKOJ is the Communist Youth League of Yugoslavia.

ZAVNOH is the Territorial Anti-Fascist Council of National Liberation for Croatia, which served as a Partisan, Communist-dominated parliament.


LIST OF CROATIAN INMATES IN GERMAN CONCENTRATION CAMPS
1. Ana Surname unknown. From Istria. Died in Ravensbruck. (Ravensbruck, p. 23).

2. Andretic, Andrija. Born 1888 in Veprinac. Taken to Dachau in 1944 where he disappeared. (Liburnijskog, p. 95).

3. Andretic, Josip (Franjo). Born 29 June 1907 in Poljane, Opatija. He was arrested in 1944 and disappeared in a German camp. (Liburnijskog, p. 92).

4. Bahoric, Belizar. Born in 1920 in Draga, Susak (Rijeka). Bahoric supported the NOP. He was arrested by the Italians and imprisoned in Koper. After Italy's capitulation, he was sent to Mauthausen where he remained until May 1944. He became a sculptor in Rijeka. (Susacka revija, vol. 29).

5. Balen, Ante. From Susak (Rijeka). A supporter of the Croatian Peasant Party, Balen had been the pre-War editor of the Susak based pro-Croatian paper Hrvatski misao. He was arrested by Yugoslav police prior to the War because of his political activities. During World War II, he was a supporter of the NOP and was arrested by the Italians and taken to Italy. After Italy's capitulation, he was sent to Mauthausen which he survived. He became a long-time editor of the Rijeka daily Novi list and died in 1994. (Susacka revija, no. 8).

6. Balvan, Pero. A law student from Split, his entire family had been in the Partisans. He was imprisoned in Dachau. (Katolicko, p. 162).

7. Baric, Ignac. From Donje Kraljevec, he died in Dachau. (www.donjikraljevec.hr).

8. Baricevic, Mate (Antona). Born 14 September 1892 in Vela Ucka, Opatija. Taken to a German camp on 1 May 1944 where he disappeared. (Liburnijskog, p. 94).

9. Barkovic, (Jure) Ivan. Born 14 July 1925 in Medveja. He was in the Partisans and captured. He died in Dachau on 24 November 1944. (Liburnijskog, p. 27).

10. Barkovic, Nikola. Born 18 May 1905, Zagorje, Brsec, Istria. A member of the NOO in Zagorje, he was arrested by the Germans on 30 November 1944 and died in S. Sabba. (Liburnijskog, p. 19).

11. Basan, (Mate) Nikola. Born 5 December 1912 in Tulisevica, Lovran. A Partisan and member of the Tuliseva NOO. He died in the Stetin concentration camp. (Liburnijskog, p. 28).

12. Belacic, Dragutin Zahor. Born 27 December 1913 in Zagreb, he was held in various camps in Italy, Austria and Germany during the War and survived. He was a leading mountain climber in Croatia. (HBL).

13. Bezic, Father Zivan. Born 18 May 1921 in Grohote, Solta, Dalmatia. He joined the Partisans in 1943 and served in the First Dalmatian Brigade. He was badly wounded in battle at Posusje on 10 October 1943 and captured by the Germans. He survived the Mauthausen, Redl-Zipf and Dachau concentration camps. He returned to Croatia after the war and was ordained as a Roman Catholic priest in Split on 29 June 1945. He completed his studies in theology and wrote numerous theological works as well as his memoirs of his time in the camps: U sjeni crematoria - Uspomene jednog logorasa (In the Shadow of the Crematoria - the Memoirs of a Camp Inmate), published in two editions in Split in 1975 and 1976. (HBL).

14. Blazic, Anton (Jakova). Born in Lovran, he lived in nearby Medveja. Arrested on 25 November 1944, he was sent to a German camp from which he never returned. (Liburnijskog, p. 81).

15. Blazic, Karlo (Nikola). Born 29 November 1914 in Lovranska Draga, Lovran. A collaborator with the NOP, he was arrested on 26 October 1944 and died from exhaustion on 31 May 1945 in Dachau. (Liburnijskog, p. 81).

16. Blecic, Lucija. From Nedescina, Labin. Her daughter was a member of the CP and she was active in the AFZ and served in the regional committee for the CPC of Pazin-Porec. She was arrested in April 1944 and sent to Aushwitz from where she returned in 1945. (Dobrila, p. 544-45).

17. Bonaci, Marija. From Dalmatia, she survived Auschwitz. (Article in Slobodna Dalmacija, 23 January 2005).

18. Bosnjak, Josip (Josipa). Born 30 April 1928 in Opatija. A Partisan, he was captured and disappeared in a German concentration camp. (Liburnijskog, p. 41).

19. Bostjanic, Ivan. Born in 1915 in Cleveland, his parents were from Istria. Between the Wars he lived in Zagreb and Belgrade. During World War II he was imprisoned in camps in France and Germany. A poet, he died in Chicago in 1973. (HBL).

20. Bradicic, Ivan (Ivana). Born 11 November 1911 in Moscenice, Opatija. Arrested by the Germans on 8 October 1944, he was taken to the Manhau concentration camp where he disappeared. (Liburnijskog, p. 35).

21. Bradicic, Conrad (Antona). Born 19 February 1900 in Kraj, Moscenicka Draga, Opatija. A sympathizer of the NOP, he was arrested by the Germans, taken to a camp and disappeared. (Liburnijskog, p. 84).

22. Brajuka, Zorko-Albino (Ivana). Born 21 September 1909 in Paz, Pazin, he lived in Ika, Opatija. Arrested on 24 January 1944, he disappeared in Dachau. (Liburnijskog, p. 73).

23. Bralic, Vlado. From Susak (Rijeka), he was imprisoned in Neuengamme. (Susacka revija, vol. 33).

24. Brdar, Tomo (Josipa). Born in Valici, Jelenje, Rijeka. A member of the local NOO, he was arrested by the Italians in early 1943 and died in Dachau. (Grobinstina, p. 401).

25. Brlek, Marija. From Trsat, Rijeka. Killed in a German concentration camp. (Trsat, p. 345).

26. Brnja, Petar (Stjepana). Born in 1906 in Podhum, Rijeka. Arrested by the Italians on 12 July 1942. Later taken to Germany where he died. (Grobinstina, p. 419).

27. Brubnjak, Josip (Petra). Born 1904 in Mala Ucka, lived in Medveja, Lovran. A sympathizer of the NOP, he was arrested by the Germans in 1944 and disappeared in the Stetin camp. (Liburnijskog, p. 82).

28. Brubnjak, Milan (Josipa). Born 7 February 1925 in Medveja. A Partisan, he died in the Stetin concentration camp. (Liburnijskog, p. 28).

29. Brubnjak, Josip (Antona). Born 19 March 1882 in Mala Ucka, he lived in Opric, Ika, Opatija. A collaborator of the NOP, he was arrested and later killed on 20 February 1945 in Dachau. (Liburnijskog, p. 73).

30. Brumnic, Ljuba. From Lindar, Istria. She died in Aushwitz. (Jakovljevic, p. 128).

31. Brumnjak, Antonia (Josipa). Born 11 September 1899 in Mala Ucka, Opatija. Disappeared in Auschwitz. (Liburnijskog, p. 94).

32. Brumnjak, Ivan (Martina). Born 2 November 1889 in Mala Ucka, Opatija. An activist of NOP, he was captured by the Germans in 1944 and disappeared in Dachau. (Liburnijskog, p. 60).

33. Brumnjak, Karlo (Kuzme). Born 11 November 1883 in Mala Ucka, Opatija. He disappeared in Dachau. (Liburnijskog, p. 94).

34. Brumnjak, Marija (Jakova). Born 26 October 1893 in Mala Ucka, Opatija. Disappeared in Auschwitz. (Liburnijskog, p. 94).

35. Brumnjak, Marija (Grge). Born 1892 in Mala Ucka, Opatija. Taken to a German camp in 1944 where she disappeared. (Liburnijskog, p. 94).

36. Brumnjak, Marija (Josipa). Born 26 October 1893 in Mala Ucka, Opatija. Taken to a German camp where she disappeared. (Liburnijskog, p. 94).

37. Brumnjak, Vera (Ivana). Born 1923 in Mala Ucka, Opatija. Disappeared in Auschwitz. (Liburnijskog, p. 94).

38. Bujas, Zorka. From Dalmatia, she survived Auschwitz. (Article in Slobodna Dalmacija, 23 January 2005).

39. Bulimbasic, Igacije (Vatroslav). Born 31 July 1886 in Split. He lived in New York for a time and was one of Croatia's earliest pilots. During World War II he was imprisoned in an Italian camp and handed over to the Germans after Germany's capitulation. He died in Split in 1976. (HBL).

40. Buratovic, Father Andjelko. Born 21 December 1895 in Vrbanj, Hvar. He became a Roman Catholic priest in 1919 and for most of the period between the two World Wars he headed the Franciscan monastery in Zaglava on Dugi Otok off the coast of Dalmatia. He was arrested in 1944 by the Germans on Krk for providing assistance to the Partisans. He survived Dachau. (Katolicko, p, 158).

41. Buric, Anka. From Dalmatia, she survived Auschwitz. (Article in Slobodna Dalmacija, 23 January 2005).

42. Butkovic, Vid. Lived in Veli Vrh, Pula. A supporter of the NOP, he was arrested in 1944 by the Germans and died in Dachau. (Nepokorena, p. 217).

43. Buzleta, Ankica. From Lizanj, Istria. She was in Auschwitz. (www.zelena-istria.hr).

44. Calic, Dr. Eduard. Born 14 October 1910 in Marcani, Pula. His family was forced to leave Pula in 1921 after it had been annexed by Italy and they moved to Zagreb where he completed law school. He was in the Oranienburg-Sachshausen concentration camp from 1942 to 1945. He went on to become a leading expert on Nazism and anti-Semitism with his books published in numerous languages. He was a corresponding member of the Croatian Academy of Arts and Sciences. He died on 29 August 2003.

45. Capota, Jolanda. From Dalmatia, she survived Auschwitz. (Article in Slobodna Dalmacija, 23 January 2005).

46. Car, Josip (Ivana). Born 12 November 1895 in Sv. Antun, Moscenicka Draga, Opatija. Arrested 29 November 1944 and taken to a German camp where he disappeared. (Liburnijskog, p. 84).

47. Cargonja, Joakim. From Susak (Rijeka), he survived Neuengamme and the British attack on the internees in Lubeck (see entry on Rude Paskvan) (Susacka revija, vol. 33).

48. Cargonja (Stanka) Marijan. Born in 1922 in Svilno, Rijeka. A supporter of the National Liberation Movement, he was arrested in 1943 and died in a German concentration camp. (Grobinstina, p. 429).

49. Cebulj, Franc. From Trsat, Rijeka. Killed in a German concentration camp. (Trsat, p. 345).

50. Cervar, Ivan. Born 3 August 1897 in Cervar, Tinjan, Istria. A member of the CPI, he fled to Yugoslavia in 1931 and settled in Zagreb. He was a Partisan leader in Istria. He was arrested on March 1943 and survived the Dachau, Neuengamme and Aurich concentration camps. (Prikljucenje, pp. 342-44).

51. Condric, Dr. Gloria. From Rabac, Labin. Survived an unnamed German concentration camp. (Pazinski memorijal, vol. 14, pp. 190-91).

52. Dabic, Zora. From Zagreb. Survived Aushwitz. (Jakovljevic, p. 129).

53. Danica. Surname unknown. From Pazin, Istria. In the Finow concentration camp. (Ravensbruck, p. 35).

54. Daus, Andrija. From Borut, Istria. He worked with the NOP and was killed in a German concentration camp. (Prikljucenje, p. 351).

55. Debeuc, Vladimir. From Trsat, Rijeka. He was in a camp in Italy and taken to Germany after Italy's capitulation. He was killed in Neuengamme concentration camp near Hamburg. (Trsat, pp. 337 & 345).

56. Deskovic, Milena. Lived in Icici, Opatija. Died in S. Sabba on 22 December 1944. (Liburnijskog, p. 73).

57. Detan, Romano (Ivana). Born 27 August 1925 in Moscenicka Draga. A Partisan he was captured on 15 July 1944 and taken to the Sangerhausen concentration camp where he was killed on 15 December 1944. (Liburnijskog, p. 35).

58. Diklic, Zorka. From Susak (Rijeka). She was in Ravensbruck. (Ravensbruck, p. 28).

59. DiLenardo, Karlo (Ivana). Born 15 July 1907 in Matulje. Served in the Italian Army and was captured in 1943. Died in a concentration camp in Nis, Serbia. (Liburnijskog, p. 120).

60. Domijani, Ricardo (Antona). Born in 1886 in Cernik, Rijeka. He worked with the NOP and was arrested by the Germans in October 1943 and taken to a concentration camp where he disappeared. (Grobinstina, p. 411).

61. Dorcic, Franjo. Born 15 May 1912 in Pazin, Istria, he lived in Zagreb and in Susak (Rijeka). He worked with the NOP and became a Partisan leader in Istria. He was caught by the Germans and survived Auschwitz. (Prikljucenje, pp. 359-60).

62. Dubrovic, Ivan (Josipa). Born 22 February 1922 in Rukavac, Opatija. A member of the NOO for Kuceli, Opatija, he was captured by the Germans and taken to a camp in 1944 where he disappeared. (Liburnijskog, p. 52).

63. Dubrovic, Klementa (present surname is Morozin). Born 23 December 1925 in Draga, Susak (Rijeka). She was arrested on 2 August 1944 by Ustashe as she and a friend were delivering materials to a Partisan courier. She survived Auschwitz. (Article in Novi list, 30 January 2005).

64. Dugopoljac, Nikola (Franina). Born in 1905 in Rupe, Bribir, Sibenik. Arrested by the Italians, he ended up in Dacahu where he died in 1944. (www.visovac.hr).

65. Dujmic, Zivko. Born 1904 in Kostrena. A candidate member of the CPC, he was captured by the Germans on 29 June 29 1944 and taken to Dachau where he was killed in 1945. (Kostrena, p. 72).

66. Dukic, Anton (Franje). Born 16 January 1907 in Jusici, Matulje. Arrested on 12 October 1944, he disappeared in a German camp. (Liburnijskog, p.74).

67. Erceg, Petar. From Dalmatia, he survived Auschwitz. (Article in Slobodna Dalmacija, 23 January 2005).

68. Ferencic, Eufemija. From Pazin, was 65 years old when taken to Ravensbruck. Her three sons were in the Partisans (Ravensbruck, p. 6).

69. Ferencic. Name unknown. Husband of Eufemija. Killed in Dachau. (Ravensbruck, p. 6).

70. Ferlan, Ugo (Angela). Born 1 September 1901 in Opatija. An activist in the NOP, he was arrested on 16 December 1944 and disappeared in a German concentration camp. (Liburnijskog, p. 42).

71. Frlan, Vinko (Vicko). Born 12 May 1921 in Matulje. A Partisan, he was arrested and taken to a German concentration camp in 1944 where he disappeared. (Liburnijskog, p. 32).

72. Fucak, Vilim (Viktora). Born in 1923 in Svilno, Rijeka. He joined the Partisans in 1943, was captured and taken to Germany where he was imprisoned and disappeared. (Grobinstina, p. 409).

73. Fucak (Viktora) Slavko. Born in 1924 in Svilno, Rijeka. A supporter of the NOP, he was arrested by the Italians and later taken to a German concentration camp where he disappeared. (Grobinstina, p. 429).

74. Furlanic, Danica (Franje). Born 20 May 1924 in Vela Ucka, Opatija. Disappeared in 1945 in Auschwitz. (Liburnijskog, p. 94).

75. Gaus, Ivan (Josipa). Born 1891 in Klana. Arrested 2 June 1944 and killed in the Hamburg concentration camp on 4 January 1945. (Liburnijskog, p. 95).

76. Gaus, Juraj (Anton). Born 1888 in Klana. Arrested 15 February 1944 and killed in August 1944 in Dachau. (Liburnijskog, p. 95).

77. Grizinic, Anka. From Cerovlje, near Pazin. She died in Auschwitz. (Jakovljevic, p. 128).

78. Grizinic, Franco (Matije). Born 22 October 1913 in Klana. Killed in S. Sabba. (Liburnijskog, p. 95).

79. Grubisa, Ana (Antona). Born 11 September 1919 in Mali Mune, Istria. Arrested on 10 August 1944, she disappeared in a German camp. (Liburnijskog, p. 85).

80. Grubisa. Personal name unknown. From Rijeka. Was in Auschwitz. (Article in Novi list, 6 July 2002).

81. Grudicek, Nevenka. Born 1908 in Cernik, Rijeka. She worked for the NOP and had been arrested by Chetniks in 1944. She was imprisoned in a concentration camp in Austria from where she did not return. (Grobinstina, p. 411).

82. Grzanic, Lovro (Franje). Born 23 October 1923 in Lovran. A Partisan, he was captured by the Germans on 29 June 1944 and taken to a concentration camp where he disappeared. (Liburnijskog, p. 28).

83. Gudac, Stanko. From Susak (Rijeka), he was imprisoned in Neuengamme. (Susacka revija, vol. 33).

84. Haramija, Franco (Franje). Born in 1922 in Cavle, Rijeka. He served in the Partisans, was captured by the Germans and died in the Blankechan Camp. (Grobinstina, p. 375).

85. Hatezic, Josip (Franje). Born 1914 in Podhum, Rijeka. A Partisan since 1942, he had been captured by the Germans in October 1943. He died in a German concentration camp. (Grobinstina, p. 396).

86. Herak, Bogumil. An Istrian living in Zagreb, he died in Auschwitz. (Nepokorena, p. 42).

87. Hero, Prima. From Susak (Rijeka), she was in Ravensbruck and died in a camp. (Ravensbruck, pp. 7 & 25).

88. Hlaca, Josip (Josipa). Born in 1912 in Soboli, Cavle, Rijeka. He joined the Partisans in 1942 and was captured. He died in a German camp in 1944. (Grobinstina, p. 378).

89. Hlaca, Romano (Pija). Born 1911 in Drazice, Gornje Jelenje. He joined the Partisans in 1943. He was captured and died in a Dachau on 23 December 1944. (Grobinstina, p. 386) (Trsat, p. 345).

90. Hrelja, Ivan (Josipa). Born 29 August 1909 in Brsec, Istria. Disappeared in Dachau. (Liburnijskog, p. 73).

91. Hrelja, Vjekoslav (Josipa). Born 4 August 1909 in Brsec, Istria. Disappeared in Dachau. (Liburnijskog, p. 73).

92. Ilic - Gilli, Antonio (Toni Harmonika). Born 24 January 1896 in Fazana, Pula. He had been a member of the CPI and fought in the Spanish Civil War. He fought with the Partisans and was captured by the Germans in March 1944. He died in Dachau. His two brothers also were taken to German concentration camps. (Nasi Spanjolski, pp. 142-44).

93. Ivancic, Drago (Tomasa). Born in 1914 in Brgudac, Istria. He was a Partisan leader in Istria and joined the CPC. He was caught by the Germans in December 1944 and is believed to have died in a German concentration camp. (Prikljucenje, pp. 347-48).

94. Ivancic, Jakov. Brother of Drago, he was killed in Dachau. (Prikljucenje, p. 348).

95. Ivic, Kosovka. From Dalmatia, she survived Auschwitz. (Article in Slobodna Dalmacija, 23 January 2005).

96. Jakovasic, Ivan (Ivana). Born 1921 in Liganj, Lovran. A Partisan, he voluntarily surrendered to the Germans and was taken to a camp from which he did not return. (Liburnijskog, p.82).

97. Jakovasic, Josip (Andrije). Born 1925 in Liganj, Lovran. A sympathizer with the NOP, he was taken to a German camp from which he did not return. (Liburnijskog, p. 82).

98. Jakovcic. Personal name unknown. From Istria. He survived Dachau and under the Communist Yugoslav regime was imprisoned in the Goli Otok prison for political prisoners. He is the father of Ivan Jakovcic, the president of the Istrian Democratic Party (IDS). (Article in Slobodna Dalmacija, 28 December 1999).

99. Jezic, Krunoslav. Born in 1926 in Kukljanovo. A teacher, he worked with the NOP and was arrested in 1943. He died in Dachau. (Grobinstina, p. 403).

100. Jurdana, Stanka (Josipa). Born 11 December 1913 in Gornji Rukavac, Opatija. A member of the AFZ committee in Gornji Rukavac, she was captured by Chetniks and handed over to the Germans in April 1945. She disappeared in Dachau. (Liburnijskog, p. 53).

101. Juradina, Rudolf - Dola. From Podstrane near Split. A Partisan, he had been imprisoned in Mauthausen. (Katolicko, p. 163).

102. Juretic (Josipa) Ludvik. Born 1898 in Martinovo Selo, Jelenje, Rijeka. A supporter of the
NOP, he was arrested by the Italians on 12 July 1942. He died in a German concentration camp. (Grobinstina, p. 415).

103. Juretic (Franje) Vlado. Born 1 December 1906 in Trnovici, Jelenje, Rijeka. Arrested by the Germans in August 1944, he died in a German concentration camp. (Grobinstina, p. 426).

104. Juranic, Oskar. Born 11 October 1909 in Rijeka. A member of the CPY since 1933, he fought in the Spanish Civil War. After the War he was kept in a French camp and after Germany's occupation of France was sent to Dachau on 8 December 1943 where he remained until 29 April 1945. He worked for the Ministry of Foreign Affairs for Yugoslavia until 1948 when he was sentenced with a group of former inmates of Dachau (mostly Slovenes) who were wrongfully charged with having worked for the Gestapo. He was executed in 1948. He was rehabilitated in 1976. (Nasi
Spanjolski, p. 154-58).

105. Kalcic, Ferdinanda (Antona). Born 22 July 1895 in Kraj, Moscenicka Draga, Opatija. Arrested by pro-Mussolini Italians in November 1944, he disappeared in the Herckbruk concentration camp. (Liburnijskog, p. 84).

106. Kalcic, Ivan (Ferdinanda). Born 10 May 1925 in Kraj, Moscenicka Draga, Opatija. An activist in the NOP, he was captured on 2 December 1944 and taken to a German concentration camp where he disappeared. (Liburnijskog, p. 36).

107. Kate. Surname unknown. From Rakalj, Pula, Istria. Was in Ravensbruck. (Ravensbruck, p. 19).

108. Kinkela, Angelo (Josipa). Born 30 June 1905 in Jusici, Matulje. Imprisoned in a German concentration camp in October 1943 where he disappeared. (Liburnijskog, p. 24).

109. Kinkela, Franco (Ivana). Born 1909 or 1905 in Zvonece, Opatija. Taken to a German camp on 15 March 1944 where he disappeared. (Liburnijskog, p. 96).

110. Kirsic, Ludovika. Born in the area of Labin, she lived in Mala Ucka, Opatija. She was arrested in 1944 and disappeared in Auschwitz. (Liburnijskog, p. 95).

111. Klisanic, Rude (Stjepana). Born 16 August 1903 in Karlovac, he lived in Kukuljanovo. He joined the Partisans in 1943. He was captured and taken to Ravensbruck where he died. (Grobinstina, p. 405).

112. Knezevic, Juraj. Born 1905 in Vinjerica and moved to Kostrena as a child. A Partisan, he was captured by the Germans on 20 October 1943 and taken to Dachau where he died on 27 April 1944. (Kostrena, p. 87).

113. Kolmanic, (Ivana) Nikola. Born 28 May 1892 in Brdo, Icici. An activist of the NOP, he was arrested by the Germans on 10 October 1944 and died in Buchenwald. (Liburnijskog, p. 21).

114. Kopitar, Marija (born Kurelic). Born 6 May 1889 in Pazin. She supported the NOP and had been elected as a member of the NOO for Istria in 1943 and was elected to serve in ZAVNOH. She had been captured by the Germans on 27 October 1943 and was taken to the Auschwitz (from 3 December 1943 to 18 January 1945) and Bergen-Belsen concentration camps. A prominent teacher, Kopitar died on 1 January 1978 and is buried in Rijeka. (Jakovljevic).

115. Kordic, Albin. Born in 1911 in Rab, he joined the Partisans, was captured on Losinj and was sent to Dachau. The Yugoslav government awarded him the Medal for Services to the People (Orden zasluga za naroda) in 1950. He thereafter attended the seminary in Rijeka, was ordained as a priest and served in parishes in Lika, Gorski kotar and Senj. (Katolicko, p. 163)

116. Kordic, Petar. Brother of Albin and a Partisan. He was imprisoned and taken to Dachau. (Katolicko, p. 163).

117. Kordic. Name unknown. A half-brother of Albin Kordic. He was imprisoned in Dachau (Katolicko, p. 162).

118. Koritnik, Boris. From Trsat, Rijeka. He had been initially interned in Italy and then take to Germany after Italy's capitulation. He was killed in the Neuengamme concentration camp in Hamburg. (Trsat, pp. 337 & 345).

119. Kosic, Marija. From Polijica, Krk. She survived Auschwitz. (Article in Novi list, 28 January 2005).

120. Kovacic, Vinko. From Trsat, Rijeka. A member of SKOJ, he was arrested and sent to a concentration camp. (Trsat, p. 305).

121. Krajcar, Franica. From Semic, Lupoglav, Istria. Died in Aushwitz. (Jakovljevic, p. 128).

122. Krbavac, Ivan Djino. Born 1920 in Kostrena. A Partisan he was captured by the Germans in Lika. After being transported first to Zagreb, he ended up in Dachau where he died in 1944. (Kostrena, p. 91).

123. Kucic, Vilim. From Lokve, Delnice, he was imprisoned in Neuengamme. (Susacka revija, vol. 33).

124. Kukuljan, Bozo (Blaza). Born 1908 in Kukuljani, Jelenje, Rijeka. He was captured by the Germans in summer 1944 and taken to Dachau where he disappeared. (Grobinstina, p. 414).

125. Kukuljan, Konstantin (Blaza). Born 1912 in Kukuljani, Jelenje, Rijeka. He had been a member of the NOO in Kukuljanovo and joined the Partisans in 1943. He was captured by the Germans in September 1943. He died in a concentration camp in Germany. (Grobinstina, p. 391).

126. Kurtovic, Tonci (Prpic). From Dalmatia, he was in Auschwitz. (Article in Slobodna Dalmacija, 23 January 2005).

127. Laginja, Anton (Ivana). Born 1922 in Klana. Arrested May 5, 1944 and taken to Mauthausen where he was killed on 16 October 1944. (Liburnijskog, p. 95).

128. Laginja, Ruza (Ivana). Born 1916 in Klana. Taken to Dachau in 1943 where she was killed in 1944. (Liburnijskog, p. 95).

129. Lalin, Prof. Milivoj. From Split, he survived Buchenwald. (Article in Novi list, 11 April 2002).

130. Lazaric, Josip (Josipa). Born 28 July 1901 in Moscenicka Draga. President of the local NOO, he was arrested in November 1944 and died in Dachau on 17 April 1945 in Dachau. (Liburnijskog, p. 35).

131. Ljubica. A medical student in the Finow concentration camp. (Ravensbruck, p. 36).

132. Lopac, Milan. From Trsat, Rijeka. Initially interned in Italy, he was taken to Germany after Italy's capitulation. He was killed in Neuengamme concentration camp near Hamburg. (Trsat, pp. 337 & 345).

133. Lucija. Surname unknown. From Rakalj, Pula, Istria. Was the local president of the AFZ and a member of the local NOO. Was in Ravensbruck. (Ravensbruck, p. 8).

134. Lukezic, Stanko (Ivana). Born 1911 in Lukezici, Jelenje, Rijeka. Arrested by the Italians in 1941, he was later taken to Germany where he disappeared (Grobinstina, p. 415).

135. Lunacek, Adi. From Opatija, born in 1921. Died in 1945 in Flossenberg concentration camp. (information found on her tombstone in Opatija).

136. Maljkovic, Jela. From Trogir, she survived Auschwitz (Article in Slobodna Dalmacija, 23 January 2005).

137. Mance, Zlatko. Born in Fuzine, Gorski Kotar. Arrived in Dachau in September 1943. He survived the camp. (Article in Novi list, 28 January 2004).

138. Mandic, Danijel (Danijela). Born 14 November 1928 in Kuceli, Opatija. A Partisan, he was captured by the Germans in August 1944 and disappeared in a camp. (Liburnijskog, p. 54).

139. Mandic, Nevenka. Mother of Oleg Mandic (see below), she lived in Volosko, Opatija. Her husband had escaped to the Partisans after Italy's capitulation. She survived Auschwitz. (article in Novi list, 22 January 2005).

140. Mandic, Oleg. Born in Susak (Rijeka) on 5 April 1934, he lived in Volosko, Opatija. The grandson of Ante Mandic (a Vice-President of ZAVNOH, a member of the AVNOJ council and one of the three members of the Royal Regency), he was arrested on 15 May 1944 and taken to Auschwitz with his mother and grandmother. All three survived. (article in Novi list, 22 January 2005).

141. Mandic, Olga Nikolajeva Stepenko. A non-Croat, married to Ante Mandic and grandmother of Oleg (see above). She lived in Volosko, Opatija and survived Auschwitz. (article in Novi list, 22 January 2005).

142. Marcan, Dragica. From Zarecje, Istria. She was in Aushwitz. (Jakovljevic, p. 128).

143. Marcan, Marija. From Zarecje, Istria, she survived the Aushwitz concentration camp. Her husband was executed by the Germans (Jakovljevic, p. 127).

144. Marcan. Son of Marija Marcan, he died in Dachau (Jakovljevic, p. 127).

145. Marcan. Son of Marija Marcan. Was taken to a German concentration camp. (Jakovljevic, p. 128).

146. Margan, Djuro. Was in the Neuengamme concentration camp and seen there by Gino Sirola. (Susacka revija, vol. 33 and Article in Novi list, 18 December 2004).

147. Maricic, Branka. From Rijeka, she survived S. Sabba concentration camp. (www.istrianet.org).

148. Marija. Personal name unknown. From Rakalj, Pula, Istria. She was active in the AFZ. She was in Ravensbruck. (Ravensbruck, p. 8).

149. Marija. Personal name unknown. From Prodol, Pula, Istria. A 15 year old when she was sent to Ravensbruck. (Ravensbruck, p. 12).

150. Marija. Surname unknown. From Pazin, Istria. In the Finow concentration camp. (Ravensbruck, p. 35).

151. Markovic, Ivan (Antona). Born 28 April 1910 in Potoki, Moscenicka Draga. President of the local NOO, he was arrested in June 1944 and taken to a German concentration camp where he disappeared. (Liburnijskog, p. 35).

152. Marsanic, Dragutin (Dragutina). Born in 1904 in Ratulje, Jelenje, Rijeka. A member of the CPC, he had been captured by the Italians on 20 May 1942 and sentenced to a 10 year prison term. After Italy's capitulation, he was transferred to Germany where he died in May 1944 in Bergen-Belsen.

153. Martincic, Leon (Antona). Born 9 April 1906 in Moscenicka Draga. A member of the local NOO, he was arrested in April 1944 and taken to the Flossenberg concentration camp where he was killed on 13 May 1944. (Liburnijskog, p. 35).

154. Matejcic, Dragutin. Born 28 December 1907 in Marcelja, Rijeka. A volunteer in the Spanish Civil War, he was interned in a French camp after the War where the Germans shot him on 25 March 1942. (Nasi Spanjolski, p. 222).

155. Matetic, Ivan (Vinka). Born 1923 in Breza, Klana. A Partisan, he was captured on 23 September 1943 and died on 15 February 1945 in the Fullen concentration camp. (Liburnijskog, p. 68).

156. Matetic, Josip (Antona). Born 3 April 1890 in Brezi, lived in Rukavac, Opatija. A NOP activist he had been in an Italian camp and handed over to the Germans after Italy's capitulation. He disappeared in a German camp. (Liburnijskog, p. 55).

157. Matetic, Josip (Antona). Born 16 October 1899 in Zaluki, Permani, Opatija. A member of the NOO of Jurdani. He was captured and taken to a German concentration camp where he was killed on 4 November 1944. (Liburnijskog, p. 45).

158. Matic, Ivan Lovre. Born 16 October 1919 in Tribalj, Crikvenica. A Partisan, he disappeared while imprisoned in Germany in 1944. (Tribalj, p. 129).

159. Matijevic, Zora. From Trsat, Rijeka. She was active in various Communist organizations.
She survived the Ravensbruck concentration camp and described her experiences in her booklet Ravensbruck: Zenski logor smrti (Ravensbruck: The Woman's Death Camp), Zagreb: AFZ, 1946. (Ravensbruck, and Trsat, p. 338).

160. Matosic, Ratomir. A designer in the shipyards of Split, he appears to have been a Partisan and was imprisoned in Dachau. (Katolicko, p. 162).

161. Matkovic, Tomislav. From Trsat, Rijeka. He was imprisoned in a German concentration camp and survived the War. (Trsat, p. 338).

162. Mavrinac, Barbara. From Jelenje, Grobnik, Rijeka. Her husband was in the Partisans and she was sent to Ravensbruck concentration camp. (Ravensbruck, p. 7).

163. Mavrinac, Marija (Ivana). Born 31 July 1907 in Lovran. A sympathizer of the NOP, she disappeared in a German camp. (Liburnijskog, p. 82).

164. Medvedic, Milka (Alojza). Born 1893 in Klana. Taken to Auschwitz in September 1944 where she was killed on 28 March 1945. (Liburnijskog, p. 97).

165. Mender, Danijela. From Matulje. Killed in S. Sabba. (Liburnijskog, p. 84).

166. Micetic, Josip. Born 1915 in Ponikve, Kukuljanovo, Rijeka. Arrested by the Germans in October 1943, he disappeared in Dachau. (Grobinstina, p. 428).

167. Miculinic, Josip. Born in 1907 in Cernik, Kukuljanovo, Rijeka. Arrested by the Italians in June 1941, he later was taken to Dachau where he died in late 1943. (Grobinstina, p. 428).

168. Mihocic, Ivan (Ivana). Born 15 March 1924 in Matulje. A member of the Partisans, he was captured in August 1944 and killed in S. Sabba on 1 September 1944. (Liburnijskog, p. 33).

169. Mihocic, Ivan (Ivana). Born 1915 in Mune, Istria. Arrested in Rijeka in April 1944, he disappeared in a German camp. (Liburnijskog, p. 85).

170. Mihocic, Milka (Antona). Born 17 November 1921 in Male Mune, Istria. An activist of the NOP, she was taken to a German concentration camp in Villach where she died during a bombing raid in February 1945. (Liburnijskog, p. 85).

171. Mikulic, Celesta (Ivana). Born 1921 in Vele Drazica, Jelenje, Rijeka. A member of the local NOO and a member of SKOJ. He was captured by the Germans on 10 January 1945 and taken to Aushwitz where he was killed. (Grobinstina, p. 414).

172. Milos, Ljubinko. Born in 1922 in Kostrena. A Partisan, he was captured by the Germans and taken to one of their concentration camps. His ultimate fate remains unknown. (Kostrena, p. 102).

173. Milotic, Vanda. From Istria, she survived the Aushwitz concentration camp. (Jakovljevic, p. 127).

174. Miscenic, Franco (Andrija). Born 11 February 1909 in Dobrec, Lovran. He disappeared in a German camp. (Liburnijskog, p. 82).

175. Mohovic, Vjekoslav (Ivana). Born 28 March 1909 in Moscenicka Draga, Opatija. Arrested by the Germans in August 1944, he disappeared in Dachau. (Liburnijskog, p. 84).

176. Mrak, Ana (Mate). Born 1896 in Liganj, Lovran. A sympathizer of the NOP, she disappeared in a German camp. (Liburnijskog, p. 82).

177. Mrak, Petar (Ivana). Born 1890 in Liganj, Lovran. A sympathizer of the NOP, he was arrested on 29 March 1944 and disappeared in a German camp. (Liburnijskog, p. 82).

178. Mrakovcic, Antica. Born circa 1921 in Kornic, Krk. A participant in the NOP, she was arrested on 20 May 1944 and survived Auschwitz and Ravensbruck. (Article in Novi list, 28 January 2005).

179. Mrakovcic, Franjo. Born 26 March 1906 in Kornic, Krk. A volunteer in the Spanish Civil War, he was initially interned in a French camp after the War but escaped to Germany where he was imprisoned in a camp in Stuttgart. He subsequently was in several other camps until liberated by the Americans in 1945. He returned to Croatia, lived in Zagreb and died in Pula on 15 April 1983. (Nasi Spanjolski, pp. 236-38).

180. Music, Nikola (Nikola). Born 10 September 1909 in Opric, Ika, Opatija. A collaborator with the NOP, he was arrested and disappeared in Dachau. (Liburnijskog, p. 74).

181. Negric, Ivan (Ivana). Born 15 April 1923 in Moscenice, Opatija. A Partisan, he voluntarily surrendered to the Germans in June 1944 who took them to a camp where he disappeared. (Liburnijskog, p. 84).

182. Nela. Surname unknown. From Pazin, Istria. In the Finow concentration camp. (Ravensbruck, p. 35).

183. Niksic, Ivan (Mate). Born in 1888 in Lukezi, Jelenje, Rijeka. Arrested by the Ustasha in 1944, he was imprisoned in Germany where he disappeared. (Grobinstina, p. 415).

184. Novak, Father Nevesinj. A Roman Catholic priest from Medjimurje, he completed his studies and had been ordained in Rome during the War. He was arrested for "being a friend" of the Partisans and survived Dachau. After the War, he appears to have left the priesthood. (Katolicko, p. 158)

185. Opasic, Bojana. From Pazin. She died in Aushwitz. (Ravensbruck, p. 43, and Jakovljevic, p. 128).

186. Orlic, Zivko. From Punat, Krk, he survived Neuengamme and the British attack on the internees in Lubeck (see entry on Rude Paskvan) (Susacka revija, vol. 33).

187. Palmic, Anton (Nikole). Born 15 August 1909 in Opric, Ika, Opatija. A collaborator with the NOP, he was taken to a German concentration camp where he was killed on 6 September 1944. (Liburnijskog, p. 74).

188. Palmic, Robert (Antuna). Born 11 June 1910 in Lovran. He died in Buchenwald on 17 December 1944. (Liburnijskog, p. 30).

189. Palmic, Santo (Andrije). Born 1922 in Lovran. He was killed in a German camp on 24 April 1945. (Liburnijskog, p. 83).

190. Paskvan, Rude. Born in Kraljevica in 1923, he completed high school in Susak (Rijeka) and was a member of SKOJ. He survived the Bremen-Fargo and Neuengamme concentration camps. On 3 May 1945 the Germans placed Paskvan with 12,000 other inmates on four ships in Lubeck which came under attack by the RAF. Paskvan with only 255 other internees survived this erroneous Allied raid. This was the greatest loss of life in maritime history. Paskvan later became a journalist for Novi list in Rijeka and died in 2001. (Susacka revija, vo. 33).
191. Peloza, Ante. From Vele Mune, Istria. He survived the S. Sabba concentration camp. (www.istrianet.org).

192. Peloza, Ivan (Stjepana). Born 9 July 1903 in Vele Mune, Istria. A member of the NOO for Mune, he was arrested and died in Dachau. (Liburnijskog, p. 40).

193. Perisic, Anton (Antona). Born 23 March 1921 in Visoce, Lovran. A secretary of the Visoce NOO, he was arrested in May 1944 and disappeared in the Stetin concentration camp. (Liburnijskog, p. 30).

194. Peruc, Katica (Franje). Born 1909 in Vela Ucka, Opatija. She disappeared in a German camp. (Liburnijskog, p. 95).

195. Perusic, Josip (Andrije). Born 1901 in Buzdohonj, Cernik, Rijeka. He worked with the NOP and was arrested by the Germans and taken to a camp in Trieste where he disappeared on 23 May 1944. (Grobinstina, p. 411).

196. Petricevic, Tonka (Vanja) (born Siriscevic). Born in Spilt circa 1927. A Partisan, she was captured by German troops on Korcula in December 1943. After serving in a number of camps, she ended up in Auschwitz which she survived. (Article in Slobodna Dalmacija, 23 January 2005).

197. Pilat, Bojana. An Istrian living in Zagreb, she died in Auschwitz. (Nepokorena, p. 44).

198. Pilat, Father Joakim. Born in 1880 in Pazin. A Roman Catholic priest, he survived Dachau. (Katolicko, pp. 157-58).

199. Pintaric, Ivan-Cinkovac (Andre). Born 26 July 1907, he lived in Kuceli, Opatija. Killed in S. Sabba. (Liburnijskog, p. 93).

200. Piskuric, Mirko. From Trsat, Rijeka. He served as the secretary of the Susak (Rijeka) town committee of the CPC. He was arrested on 28 April 1943 and interned Italy. He was killed in Neuengamme concentration camp near Hamburg. (Trsat, pp. 282, 337 & 345).

201. Poje, Aleksandar Bato. Born in 1921 in Petrinja of parents from Rijeka and Kostrena. He was involved in illegal work for support of the Partisans in Sarajevo where he was arrested in April 1942. After being in Jasenovac, he was handed over to the Germans and was taken to their camps in Sajmiste near Belgrade, Alend near Vienna and Bersflord in Norway where he was executed on 19 July 1942. (Kostrena, p. 193).

202. Priskic, Anton (Antun). Born 10 November 1915 in Lovran. Served in the Italian financial police. He died in the Sand-Bastel-Witsendorf camp in December 1944. (Liburnijskog, p. 119).

203. Prodan, Mario (Petra). Born 15 March 1921 in Volosko, Opatija. Arrested by the Germans in Opatija on 12 February 1944, he disappeared in a German camp. (Liburnijskog, p. 92).

204. Puhar, Josip (Ivana). Born 19 October 1924 in Poljane, Opatija. A Partisan. He was killed in S. Sabba on 22. January 1944. (Liburnijskog, p. 50).

205. Pulic, Ivan (Marina). Born 18 May 1880 in Kozuli, Dobrec, Lovran. A sympathizer of the NOP. He was killed in Dachau in May 1945. (Liburnijskog, p. 83).

206. Puz, Ivan (Josipa). Born 27 November 1925 in Permani, Opatija. A Partisan, he was captured in November 1944 and later killed in S. Sabba. (Liburnijskog, p. 46).

207. Radetic, Darinka-Donata (Tome) (married name Koverlica). Born 12 December 1921 in Volosko. Survived S. Sabba. (Liburnijskog, p. 102).

208. Radosevic, Ivan. An Istrian living in Zagreb, he died in Dachau in 1945. (Nepokorena, p. 44).

209. Radun, Elda. From Dalmatia, she survived Auschwitz. (Article in Slobodna Dalmacija, 23 January 2005).

210. Rak, Cvetko (Marka). Born in 1923 in Buzdohanj, Cernik, Rijeka. Worked in the NOP. He was captured in Gorski kotar and died in a camp in 1944. (Grobinstina, p. 372).

211. Raspor, Drago (Jerolima). Born in 1920 in Klana. Killed in a German camp. (Liburnijskog, p. 98).

212. Raspor, Dusan (Drage). Born in 1920 in Klana. Killed in a German camp. (Liburnijskog, p. 98).

213. Raspor, Franco (Ivana). Born 1914 in Klana. Taken to a German camp on 14 June 1944 and killed on 8 April 1945. (Liburnijskog, p. 98).

214. Rauch, Zdenko. Born in 1908 in Kostrena. A Partisan, he was captured by the Germans in 1943 and first was in a number of camps in Croatia and Serbia before being taken to a camp in Munster. He was later moved to Lager Vic where he died in March or April 1945. (Kostrena, p. 123).

215. Ritt, Katarina. From Trsat, Rijeka. Killed in a German concentration camp. (Trsat, p. 346).

216. Rubinic, Ivan (Ivana). Born 27 August 1892 in Kalac, Moscenicka Draga. A member of the NOO for Moscenicka Draga, he was arrested on 20 April 1944 and he disappeared in the Binderhausen concentration camp. (Liburnijskog, p. 37).

217. Rubinic, Spiro (Antona). Born 24 April 1894 in Moscenice, Opatija. Arrested by the Germans on 11 November 1944, he disappeared in 1945 in the Flossenberg concentration camp. (Liburnijskog, p. 85).

218. Rudan, Marija (Antona). Born 16 February 1922 in Grabovo, Moscenicka Draga. President of the USAOH for Grabovo, she was arrested on 22 November 1944 and taken to a German concentration camp where she disappeared. (Liburnijskog, p. 37).

219. Ruzic, Rudolf (Ivana). Born 27 January 1913 in Pobri, Opatija. Killed in 1944 in S. Sabba. (Liburnijskog, p. 92).

220. Salvi - Slavic, Anton (Antona). An Italian of Croatian descent born 12 May 1905 in Puzi, Permani, Opatija. Killed in S. Sabba. (Liburnijskog, p. 92).

221. Samsa, Franco (Antona). Born in Klana, he lived in Rijeka. Taken to Dachau on 15 February 1944 and killed there in March 1945. (Liburnijskog, p. 98).

222. Sandalj, Fani (Ferdinanda) (born Kalcic). Born 26 September 1909 in Kraj, Moscenicka Draga, Opatija. Arrested by pro-Mussolini Italians in 1944 and disappeared in the Herzbruck concentration camp. (Liburnijskog, p. 85).

223. Sankovic, Andrija (Andrije). Born 1900 in Zejane, Istria. President of the local NOO, he was captured on 8 February 1944 and taken to Dachau where he was killed on 24 December 1944. (Liburnijskog, p. 67).

224. Sankovic, Anton (Andrije). Born 17 May 1904 in Zejane, Istria. A collaborator with the NOP, he was arrested in Rijeka in April 1944 and taken to a camp where he disappeared. (Liburnijskog, p. 86).

225. Semeliker, Father Matthias. A Roman Catholic priest and an ethnic Croat from the Burgenland region of Austria where he was born in 1910. He defended the use of the Croatian language in the region in the face of Nazi persecution. He was arrested on 9 March 1943 and survived Dachau. (Katolicko, p. 161).

226. Sepic, Dusan (Rudolfa). Born in Kuceli, Opatija. A Partisan, he was captured on 18 December 1944 and disappeared in Dachau. (Liburnijskog, p. 56).

227. Sepic, Ivan (Mate). Born 11 September 1911 in Moscenicka Draga. An activist in the NOP, he was arrested by the Germans in February 1945 and taken to a German concentration camp where he disappeared. (Liburnijskog, p. 38).

228. Sersic, Franka. From Rab. She and her husband hid three American intelligence officers in their home for several weeks. The officers had been sent to Rab to establish a radio relay station to connection the leadership of the Croatian Partisans with the Allies in Italy. Shortly after the officers had been moved out, the Germans arrested Franka and her husband in March 1944 and took her to a concentration camp. (Ticac, pp. 62-63).

229. Sersic, Jakov. From Rab. Husband of Franka, he was taken to a German concentration camp. (Ticac, pp. 62-63).

230. Simcevic, Bozidar (Pave). Born 1892 in Maslenica, Zadar, lived in Opatija. Initially he had been in an Italian camp. He was released upon Italy's capitulation and became a member of the NOO of Opatija. He was arrested again in Spring 1944 and was killed in S. Sabba in the same year. (Liburnijskog, p. 44).

231. Sintic, Albert (Josipa). Born 10 January 1914 in Sucici, Moscenicka Draga, Opatija. Collaborated with the NOP. Arrested by the Germans in July 1944, he disappeared in Dachau. (Liburnijskog, p. 85).

232. Sirola, Gino. From Zamet, Rijeka. A member of the CPC, he was arrested in Rijeka on 7 July 1944. He did forced labor in a number of camps including Dacahu and survived. (Article in Novi list, 18 December 2004).

233. Sirotnjak, Marijan (Lina). Born 1925 in Lovranska Draga, Lovran. A member of the local NOO, he was arrested on 21 January 1944 and disappeared in Dachau. (Liburnijskog, p. 30).

234. Sirotnjak, Mario (Ivana). Born in Lovran, he died from tuberculosis in Dachau on 16 May 1945. (Liburnijskog, p. 83).

235. Sizgoreo, Jozica. Lives in Split, she survived Auschwitz. (Article in Slobodna Dalmacija, 23 January 2005).

236. Skalamera, Anica. Born 1920 in Moscenicka Draga, Opatija. Killed in a German camp in July 1944. (Liburnijskog, p. 92).

237. Skalamera, Franco (Antona). Born 25 May 1909 in Kalac, Moscenicka Draga, Opatija. Arrested by the Germans on 8 October 1944, he died in Dachau on 25 November 1944. (Liburnijskog, p. 85).

238. Skalamera, Ivan (Antona). Born 26 May 1912 in Kalac, Moscenicka Draga, Opatija. President of the NOO for Kalac, he was arrested and later killed on 19 December 1944 in S. Sabba. (Liburnijskog, p. 38).

239. Skerijanc, (Franje) Ivan. Born 26 December 1908 in Matulje. A member of the NOO for Jusici, he was arrested and taken to Buchenwald where he died on 13 December 1944. (Liburnijskog, p. 25).

240. Skocanic, Radames (Miroslava). Born 3 October 1923 in Liganj, Lovran. A sympathizer of the NOP, he was arrested by the Germans on 1 May 1944 and disappeared in a German camp. (Liburnijskog, p. 83).

241. Skvaza, Milojka Messoranja. From Susak (Rijeka), born circa 1927. A member of SKOJ, she was arrested and sent to Auschwitz. She survived the camp. (Article in Novi list, 11 December 2003).

242. Slavica. Surname unknown. From Karbuna, Istria. (Jakovljevic, p. 128).

243. Slosar, Stefanija. Born 1914 in Lipa, Rupa. Killed in S. Sabba in 1944.

244. Smaric, Petar (Antona). Born 9 April 1907 in Liganj. A sympathizer of the NOP, he was taken to a German camp and executed in October 1944. (Liburnijskog, p. 83).

245. Snjader, Franco (Ivana). Born in 1908 in Klana. Killed in Dachau on 15 February 1944. (Liburnijskog, p. 98).

246. Snajder, Ivan (Ivana). Born in 1898 in Klana. Taken to Dachau on 15 Febr

Comments
  • Comment #1 (Posted by Anne Sophie)

    Hello John,
    I wanted to thank you for your article,who's put a lot of light on my grand ma's history.With her familly she was deported in August 1942 from Jelenje to internment camps in Italy. I am still looking for historical facts so I would be gratefull if you could point me towards someone who speaks either english/french/italian and could help me with my request.
    Thanks a million

     
  • Comment #2 (Posted by Igor)

    I noticed a few names that correspond with the two sides of my family Matijevic and Mrksic, I was wondering if you could direct me to someone where i could find more information about them . My great-grandfather spent 4 years in a camp in Austria and that is all I know.
    Thank you
    Best regards,
     
  • Comment #3 (Posted by Zonia Vidovich)

    Busque no encontre nada familiar, busco a mi familia que es pequena, soy hija de Nicolas Vidovich Vladimir, los padres de mi papa eran Dusan o Duyo Vidovich Y la mama Tonka o Tonkitza Vladimir y se dedicaban a cultivar vinos en Damaltia y Opuzen, mi padre tenia dos hermanas, un hermano llamado George Vidovich Vladimir, a mi abuelo y tio George lo mataron en la asotea de la casa habitacion, mi padre emigro a Panama y luego a Costa Rica donde nacimos tres hermanos, por favor conteste, necesito saber de mi familia antes de morirnos, estamos anciosos por conocer la familia paterna, tenemos mucho amor para ellas pues solo quedaron dos hermanas, porque mi abuelita despues de la muerte de mi tio y abuelo ella murio sentada en una silla de la casa. Gracis por su paciencia,. Zonia Vidovich Mesen de Costa Rica pero radico en Waashington, U.S.A. telefono es #(360) 642-4158 llamar a collet
     
  • Comment #4 (Posted by Pedro Puz Bondí)

    Hola, busco a mi familia en Croacia, Antun Puz nacido en Rijeka(1842),su esposa Marija Slavic. Antun Puz llegó a Chile en Octubre de 1900, con su hijo Antun Puz Slavic. Busco con esperanzas a familia Puz Slavic
     
  • Comment #5 (Posted by Tonka Vidovich Mesen)

    Hola!!!, reciba saludos respetuosos, todabia busco a mi familia, me di cuenta que algunos vivian en Zadar y los otros en Dalmacia y opuzen, se dedicaban a cultivar vinedos,un detalle a mi padre le gustaba la musica, en Panama el ano 1946-1947 pertenecia a un club de canto. gracias por ayudarme a localizar a mi familia. Saludos
     
  • Comment #6 (Posted by marea lerade)

    Thanks for all your work on a little known facet of World War II. My children's grandfather (my ex-husband's father), Mate Turkovic Le Rade, (born 1924)was detained by the Germans from about 1940. An only child, he was originally taken with young men from his village of Zejane, north of Matlulji, as forced labour when he was aged 16. After escaping from the work gangs, he was eventually detained in Dachau. He survived and then spent several weeks making his way back to Zejane. In 1960, with his wife and four-year-old son, he migrated to Australia.
     
  • Comment #7 (Posted by maureen salerno)

    I am searching for information on Ignacio Penner who
    was a member of the Rijeka /susak jewish community and who opened a grain and wheat store in Susak in 1921, he was a survivor of the warbut we know little about him. Regards Maureen Salerno
     
  • Comment #8 (Posted by Zonia (Tonka ) Vidovich Mesen)

    Reciban mis saludos respetuosos, estoy en la busqueda de mi familia Paterna, Vidovich por mi Abuelo y Vladimir por mi Abuela, ellos vivian en Damaltia pero no me acuerdo el nombre del pueblo o villa asi como la ciudad, yo se que Vidovich hay muchos pero Vidovich Vladimir es muy escaso. Por favor qualquiera que tenga una minima informacion no teman en enviarla a mi, mi email es:zoniavidovich@hotmail.com
     
  • Comment #9 (Posted by Zonia (tonka ) Vidovich Mesen)

    estoy siempre en busca de mi familia Paterna, tengo una segura y autentica verdad, la familia de mi padre la componian mi abuelo Duyo o Dusan Vidovich< mi abuela Tonka Vladimir, dos Tias que no recuerdo el nombre pero si que una de ellas tenia un hijo nacido en los anos 40 a 42 mas o menos, un Tio LLamado George o Jorge Vidovich Vladimiry mi padre Nikolas Vidovich Vladimir, que vivian en Damalcia no se que ciudad, que a mi tio Jorge y mi abuelo lo mataron en la asotea de la casa, y posteriormente, mi abuelita murio en la casa y estaba sentada en una silla o poltrona, mi padre viajo a Panama, luego Costa Rica donde conocio a mi madre y de ellos nacimos tres hijos Duyo, Tonka O Zonia Y Jorge, por favor si alguien sabe algo comunicalo a mi Email:zoniavidovich@hotmail.com. Gracias por su ayuda de localizacion.
     
  • Comment #10 (Posted by Emil Gaus Berneri)

    Infiniti ringraziamenti per questo lavoro che mi ha permesso di avere notizie di mio nonno Ivan Gaus n.75 della lista. Nuovamente grazie e calorosi saluti.
     
  • Comment #11 (Posted by Albin Krbavac)

    I don&#39;t see my uncles name on this list.The name of my uncle was Krbavac Franjo born in Rockopolje istra Croatia,taken by Nazi 1944.
    Thank you. Albin(Dino)Krbavac

     
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