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Dubrovnik Missal from 12th century kept in Oxford GB facsimiled in Dubrovnik Croatia 2011
By Prof.Dr. Darko Zubrinic | Published  08/9/2011 | Music , Science , Education , Culture And Arts | Unrated
Worldwide cultural heritage monument. Croatian music history can now be traced back to the 10th century

Dr. Miho Demović initiated the publication of facsimile edition of Missale Ragusinum,
important Croatian liturgical book from 12th century

According to the words of Dr. Miho Demović, the Dubrovnik Missal is Croatian cultural monument of zero category.

Missale Ragusinum
20 July 2011

The Dubrovnik Summer Festival in cooperation with the Dubrovnik Libraries presented the facsimile edition of Missale Ragusinum and the Miho Demovic’s treatise the 12th century Beneventan notated Missal of Dubrovnik Cathedral on Wednesday, July 20 at 9:30 pm in the Dubrovnik Cathedral.

Missale Ragusinum (the Dubrovnik Missal) was written in the 12th century in Dubrovnik where it was used in the Cathedral for centuries. Today it is kept in the Bodleian Library in Oxford under shelfmark Canon. Liturg. 342. It was taken from Dubrovnik during turbulent times probably in the late 18th century after the Jesuit order was abolished, or at the beginning of the 19th century after Napoleon abolished the Republic of Dubrovnik. The manuscript disappeared without a trace for a while, only to reappear at an auction in Venice in 1817, where it was discovered that it had been owned by a famous collector, Jesuit Matteo Luigi Canonici (1727-1805).

After the owner’s death, his heirs sold the entire collection, including Missale Ragusinum, at the Venice auction. The collection was purchased by the Bodleian Library and has been in its holdings ever since. The Missal’s origin was difficult to determine. The first person to trace the Missal back to Dubrovnik was Elias Avery Loew, one of the best connoisseurs of the Beneventan script.

The information about the church and the town of origin were usually found in the calendar at the beginning of each missal; in the final prayer of the Easter Proclamation (exultet); in prayers for the bishop and other church officials in the Good Friday service; and finally in the service for the town patron.

These pages were, however, missing from Missale Ragusinum, which made it very difficult for Loew to identify its origin. Nevertheless, there was one crucial piece of information, and that was the text of the liturgy for the ancient Dubrovnik patron saints, the martyrs from Kotor – Peter, Andrew and Lawrence (collectively known as Petilovrijenci).

This fact was sufficient information for Loew to identify the Missal’s origin as being from the Dubrovnik region, since the cult of these saints was specific exclusively for Dubrovnik. There was a legend in the Dubrovnik Christian tradition surrounding these three saints, which was of a local political significance. Scholars after Loew made a mistake of tracing the Missal to the Benedictine church of St. Mary’s in Rožat, only because the Beneventan script was used by the Benedictines in the Monte Cassino abbey in Italy. The research by Dr. Miho Demović found that the church of the Missal’s origin was in fact St Mary’s cathedral in Dubrovnik. Demović has proved that the manuscript belongs to a town church governed by a bishop (rather than a village or a small town church), which can only mean the Cathedral.

Missale Ragusinum is the best representative of church chanting in southern Dalmatia and is a worldwide cultural heritage monument. Written in Beneventan script and notation, it contains 230 Gregorian chants which, in words of Dr. Demović, 'represent a superior accomplishment in this art in Europe'. As an example he quotes the exultet from Dubrovnik, which is considered to be the most refined melody in the Gregorian literature, unparalleled in any European manuscript found so far. The Gregorian chorale is the oldest known western European musical form, and it is linked to Pope Gregory I (d. in 604 AD), after whom it was named.

The Beneventan script was common to all coastal Croatian towns until the end of the 13th century, thus it was also used in Dubrovnik and its region.

However, the Beneventan manuscripts from Dubrovnik remained unresearched for a long time. In fact, the discovery of the origin of Missale Ragusinum was the starting point for studying both Beneventan script and the Gregorian chorales in Dubrovnik and Dalmatia.

The chants found in the Missal are diverse. Some are identical to other European chants, some are variations of the same chants, and others, like the exultet, are entirely different and not found anywhere else. In the words of dr. Demović: 'the Missal shows that the art of performing Gregorian music was so accomplished in Dubrovnik that it was a superior achievement equal to the rest of Europe'. (Written by

Vesna Čučić/ Translated by Paula Raguž)

Very old and valuable for the history of Croatian music is the Dubrovnik Missal from 12th century, now kept in the Bodleian Library in Oxford (Canon Ligurg 342). Written in Latin, in Beneventan script, it contains prayers and some chants unique in Europe. See [Menalo, pp. 34-35], and also Dubrovnik. The Missal, written for the Dubrovnik Cathedral , is full of old Gregorian chants, containing more than 200 monodic meodies. For a long time it was believed to have been written in North Italy, until E.A. Lowe discovered that it was written in Dubrovnik. Miho Demović proved that the Missal was written for the Dubrovnik Cathedral, [Demović, Rasprave i prilozi, p 171-183]. It is interesting that as many as 430 monodic melodies are preserved in the Dubrovnik region from that time: 220 are kept in Dubrovnik missals, out of 720 known monodic melodies preserved in the whole of Croatia. Out of these 220 monodic melodies, 50 of them represent the Dubrovnik music particularities. In this way Dubrovnik became important European center for monodic music. Some of them according to Demović represent the highest achievements of world heritage with respect to melodic beaty [Demović, Rasprave i prilozi, p 177].


Dr. Miho Demović, distinguished Croatian musicologist

Dr. Miho Demović was born in Dubravka in the Konavle region on June 16th, 1934. He graduated from the Catholic theological University in Zagreb, and also from the Faculty of Philosophy in Ljubljana where he obtained a Bachelor degree in Musicology and Art history and a Masters degree in Musicology. He went on to get his PhD in Music Science in Koeln at the Albert Magnus University.

He first worked in Dubrovnik as the secretary of the Dubrovnik Diocese, then as a teacher at the Episcopal Classical Grammar school, and later in Zagreb as regens chori. Additionally, he conducted his scholarly and research work. Dr. Demović is the most prominent living Croatian musicologist and the most significant music archaeologist of the 20th century. As dr. Marko Babić said: “Doctor of musicology Miho Demović alone performed a research equivalent to a large scientific institute. “ He has published more than 20 books and over 240 scientific articles. In his scientific publications Dr. Demović established a name for Dubrovnik culture within the Croatian culture, and Croatian culture within the western civilization, in a unique way among musicologists.

Dr. Demović’s fields of interest in musicology include the Middle Ages, the history of music in Dubrovnik, and several topics from the more recent Croatian music history. His discovery of the 11th century Beneventan manuscript of the service and feast of St Nicolas in Dubrovnik is a world-class discovery. This manuscript is considered to be the oldest manuscript book from ancient Dubrovnik.

Owing to the efforts of Dr. Demović, the Croatian music history, previously thought to date back to the 13th century, can now be traced back to the 10th century.


Pavica Šperk Šundrica, retired high school professor, who financed the whole project, donated Missale Ragusinum to Dr. Mate Uzinić, the Dubrovnik bishop.

21. srpnja 2011.
Predstavljanje čuvenog Dubrovačkog misala izazvao veliki interes publike

Jedan od najposjećenijih dosadašnjih programa Dubrovačkih ljetnih igara zasigurno je bilo predstavljanje preslika čuvenog Dubrovačkog misala iz 12. stoljeća za koje je najzaslužniji muzikolog don Miho Demović. Taj bivši regens chori zagrebačke katredrale još je prije četrdesetak godina u knjižnici Bodleian pronašao misal napisan na beneventani iz zbirke venecijanskog isusovca Mattea Luigija Canonicija.

Međunarorodni su stručnjaci taj liturgijski rukopis datirali u 13. stoljeće, neki u sjevernu Italiju, dok je Elias Avery Loew prvi ustvrdio dubrovačko porijeko Misala i to zbog spominjanja svetaca i kotorskih mučenika Petra, Andrije i Lovrijenca zbirnog naziva Petilovrijenci.

No, Misal su povezali sa benediktinskom crkvom sv. Marije u Rožatu, što je Demović znanstveno opovrgnuo ustvrdivši da Misal takve ljepote i značaja nije mogao nastati u seoskoj, nego gradskoj crkvi, dapače katedrali koja je u 12. stoljeću u Dubrovniku bila romaničko remek-djelo poznato po cijeloj Europi. U Dubrovačkom misalu kojeg je oksfordska knjižnica dozvolila pretiskati nalazi se 230 molitava i 230 napjeva koji se mogu usporediti sa najljepšim napjevima svjetske baštine, kako je to baš u dubrovačkoj katedrali ustvrdila Ileana Grazio. Taj je Misal dokaz da je Dubrovnik bio jako glazbeni srednjovjekovni centar.

Miho Demović podsjetio je da je na Misal naišao kada je u Oxfordu prepisivao neke stare napjeve za koncert na Osorskim glazbenim večerima, i nazvao ga spomenikom nulte kategorije koji je usporediv sa Kneževim dvorom, Božidarevićevim slikama i djelima Gundulića i Držića. Iza ovog izdavačkoh pothvata stale su Dubrovačke knjižnice na čelu sa Vesnom Čučić, a financirala ga je iz osobnih sredstava umirovljena dubrovačka gimnazijska profesorica engleskog jezika Pavica Šperk Šundrica. Na predstavljanju je o Dubrovniku u 12. stoljeću govorili su i Ivica Prlender i biskup Mate Uzinić, a izvrsno su pjevale i dubrovačke Amorette te tenor i kancelar bjelovarske biskupije Damir Vrabec. Miho Demović nazvan je plodnim muzikologom koji je u svom dugom životu na vidjelo izbacio više glazbenih dokumenata nego svi hrvatski muzikolozi 20. stoljeća zajedno. No posao oko Dubrovačkog misala nije gotov. Treba transkribirati sve napjeve i onda ih snimiti na nosač zvuka i pjevati i na koncertima i na misama, kako bi se i to drevno izdanje iz 12. stoljeća brendiralo kao Ragusina gregoriana.


Dr. Miho Demović in the Dubrovnik cathedral during the presentation of facsimile edition of the Missale Ragusinum from 12th century.
Left to him prof. Pavica Šperk Šundrica who financed the whole project.

The Dubrovnik Cathedral

Predstavljanje: Missale Ragusinum (Dubrovački misal)

20. srpnja 2011., Dubrovačka katedrala

U sklopu Dubrovačkih ljetnih igara, a u suradnji s Dubrovačkim knjižnicama, održat će se predstavljanje faksimilnog izdanja Dubrovačkog misala i studije dr. Miha Demovića Beneventanski notirani misal dubrovačke katedrale iz 12. st., u srijedu, 20. srpnja, u 21.30 sati, u Dubrovačkoj katedrali.

Dr. Miho Demović rodio se u Dubravci u Konavlima 16. lipnja 1934. Diplomirao je na Katoličkom bogoslovnom fakultetu u Zagrebu, a muzikologiju i povijest umjetnosti na Filozofskom fakultetu u Ljubljani, gdje je i magistrirao muzikologiju. U Kölnu je doktorirao glazbene znanosti na Sveučilištu 'Albert Magnus'.

Radio je najprije u Dubrovniku kao tajnik Biskupije i kao profesor na Biskupskoj klasičnoj gimnaziji, a zatim u Zagrebu kao regens chori. Uz to se bavio znanstvenim i istraživačkim radom. Dr. Demović je najznačajniji živući hrvatski muzikolog i najznačajniji hrvatski glazbeni arheolog dvadesetoga stoljeća. 'Doktor muzikologije Miho Demović sam je odradio istraživački posao za jedan veliki znanstveni institut', riječi su dr. Marka Babića. Objavio je 20-ak knjiga i preko 240 znanstvenih radova. Svojim znanstvenim radovima dr. Demović je afirmirao dubrovačku kulturu unutar hrvatske i hrvatsku kulturu unutar zapadne civilizacije na jedinstveni način među muzikolozima.

Muzikološki rad dr. Demovića uglavnom obuhvaća srednji vijek, zatim glazbenu povijest Dubrovnika i poneke teme iz novije hrvatske glazbene prošlosti. U rang svjetskog otkrića je njegov pronalazak beneventanskog rukopisa obreda i blagdana Sv. Nikole iz Dubrovnika iz XI. stoljeća. Rukopis se smatra najstarijom knjigom rukopisa starog Dubrovnika.

Zaslugom dr. Demovića povijest hrvatske glazbe, za koju se smatralo da seže samo do XIII. stoljeća, sada ide i do X. stoljeća.

Missale Ragusinum (Dubrovački misal) nastao je u Dubrovniku u 12. st., gdje se stoljećima koristio u katedrali. Danas se čuva u Bodleian Library u Oxfordu pod signaturom: Canon. Liturg. 342. Iz Dubrovnika je nestao u njegovim kriznim vremenima vjerojatno krajem 18. stoljeća nakon što je isusovački red ukinut ili početkom 19. stoljeća u turbulentnim ratnim i poratnim vremenima nakon što je Napoleon ukinuo Dubrovačku Republiku.

Rukopisu se izgubio trag neko vrijeme, a pojavio se 1817. godine na dražbi u Veneciji, gdje se saznalo da je njegov vlasnik bio veliki kolekcionar, isusovac Matteo Luigi Canonici (1727.1805.). Nakon kolekcionarove smrti, njegovi nasljednici su kolekciju, u kojoj se nalazio i Missale Ragusinum, prodali na dražbi u Veneciji. Rukopis je zajedno s ostalom bogatom zbirkom baštinika Canonicija kupila Bodleian Library i od tada se nalazi u njezinom fondu.

Nije bilo lako utvrditi porijeklo Misalu. Prvi koji je ustanovio dubrovačko podrijetlo Misala bio je Elias Avery Loew, jedan od najboljih poznavatelja beneventane. Nedostatak listova na kojima obično stoje zapisani podaci o crkvi i gradu kojima je rukopis pripadao otežavao je utvrđivanje njegova porijekla. Ti podaci se obično čitaju iz kalendara, koji se redovito nalazi na početku svakog misala, zatim iz završne molitve u uskrsnoj pohvali exulteta i molitve za biskupa i druge crkvene dostojanstvenike u obredu Velikog petka i na kraju iz mise patrona grada. Usprkos nemogućim uvjetima da se otkrije porijeklo, ipak je ostao unutar Misala jedan ključni podatak, koji je Loewu bio sasvim dovoljan da identificira grad iz kojeg Misal potječe. Taj podatak se odnosi na obrazac mise triju neuobičajenih svetaca, kotorskih mučenika Petra, Andrije i Lovrijenca.

Ključ za točnu provenijenciju ovog glazbenog kodeksa omogućile su upravo te mise u čast trojice kotorskih mučenika zbirnog naziva Petilovrijenci, koje su vrlo svečano slavljene u ovom kodeksu. Uz ove svece dubrovačka kršćanska tradicija stvorila je legendu, koja je bila i od lokalnog političkog značaja.

Daljnji istraživači su pogrešno povezali Misal s benediktinskom crkvom sv. Marije u Rožatu, a zato jer je Misal pisan beneventanom, koju su upotrebljavali benediktinci u opatiji Monte Cassino u Italiji.

Istraživanja dr. Miha Demovića utvrdila su da je crkva u kojoj je Misal nastao u Dubrovniku katedrala Sv. Marije. Demović je dokazao da je rukopis pripadao gradskoj, a ne seoskoj crkvi, takvoj gradskoj crkvi kojoj se na čelu nalazi biskup, što pak upućuje na katedralu.

Missale Ragusinum iz 12. stoljeća najbolje predstavlja crkveno pjevanje u južnoj Dalmaciji i spomenik je nulte kategorije. Pisan je beneventanskim pismom i notacijom. Sadrži gregorijanske napjeve i, kako zapisuje dr. Demović, 'ti napjevi pretpostavljaju vrhunsko dostignuće te vrste umjetnosti u Europi.' Kao primjer navodi dubrovački exultet, za koji se smatra da je melodijski najrazvijeniji u gregorijanskoj literaturi, te da se ne nalazi nešto slično ni u jednom do sada poznatom europskom rukopisu.

Gregorijanski koral je najstarija sačuvana glazba zapadno-europskog glazbenog izraza, a povezuje se uz ime Pape Grgura I. (umro 604. godine) po kome je i dobio ime gregorijanski koral.

Beneventana je bilo zajedničko pismo u svim primorskim hrvatskim gradovima do kraja 13. st., pa se tako i Dubrovnik i njegovo područje služilo beneventanom. No, dubrovački beneventanski rukopisi su ostali neproučeni, pa je zato bilo otežano dokazivanje njegova nastanka u Dubrovniku. Missale Ragusinum je polazišna točka za proučavanje kako beneventanskog pisma u našim krajevima, tako i koralnih napjeva u Dubrovniku i Dalmaciji. Napjevi koji se sreću u Misalu su raznoliki. Neki su istovjetni ostalim europskim napjevima, neki su inačice sličnih napjeva, a neki su, poput exulteta, posve drukčiji i ne nalaze se nigdje drugo. Prema riječima dr. Demovića, 'Misal dokazuje da je izvođačka praksa u Dubrovniku bila na vrlo visokoj razini i da je doživjela vrhunski domet gregorijanskog muziciranja ravan onome u Europi.'

Vesna Čučić
Izvor: Dubrovačke ljetne igre

Formated for CROWN by prof.dr. Darko Žubrinić
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