By Adam S. Eterovich






The Royal Cravates were the Palace Guards to  King Louis XIII of France. Croatian hussars wore a colorful bandana around their neck. Hrvat means Croatian-Cravat and the NECKTIE WAS BORN. Some of these Guards emigrated to America and Canada. Regimental History: In 1643 created from the remainders of the Croatian regiments in French service which had been disbanded at the time of Louis XIII's death and named the Royal-Cravates. War record 1805: With the Grande Armee at Austerlitz; 1806-7: With the Grande Armee at Jena, EyIau and Hoff; 1809: With the Armee d'Allemagne at Eckmuehl and Wagram; 1812: Fought at La Moskowa; 1813-4: With the Grande Armee at Leipzig and Hamburg; 1815: Fought at Waterloo.




The invention is the “mechanical pencil” whose variant can be found in the pockets of our contemporaries. Both the technical pencil and the fountain pen were invented by the engineer Eduard Slavojub Penkala (b. Sv. Mikulas 1871-d. Zagreb 1919). A typical homo faber of the industrial age, he settled in Zagreb at the beginning of the century. He set up a chemical laboratory and workshops, where he invented and patented about 80 chemistry, mechanical and aviation devices. He was an extremely talented and innovative person, the first to record in 1909, the opera and operetta airs on a gramophone record, He was an amateur pilot and constructed his own aeroplane in 1910. In 1906 he patented a mechanical pencil in Budapest and started its largescale production in various shapes and sizes in Zagreb, shortly after. Penkala soon became a synonym and brand name for the mechanical pencil, the real forerunner of the modern types of technical pencils and pens. There are Penkala’s in Opatija, Rijeka and Zagreb. POST




Josip (Juan) Vucetic (1858-1925), a criminologist and antropologist born on the island of Hvar, lived in Argentina. He was one of the pioneers of the scientific dactyloscopy (identification by fingerprints) and occupied the position of the director of the Center for Dactiloscopy in Buenos Aires. His method of identification was in use throughout South America. The police school in La Plata  bears his name: "Escuela de policia Juan Vucetic", as well as the Argentinian Police museum. Juan Vucetic invented fingerprinting. About 250,000 Croatians live in Argentina today.




Nikola Tesla (1856-1943), born in Croatia. He is the father of alternating electrical current technology and the three phase system. He is equally known by his contribution to the high frequency technology and wireless communications. The impact of Tesla's numerous inventions (more than 700 patents) on the development of modern civilization is immeasurable. The unit for magnetic induction Tesla, was named after him. He refused to receive the Nobel prize which he had to share with T.A. Edison. In 1942 the American Supreme Court decided that Tesla invented the Radio, not Marconi.



Adam S. Eterovich